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首页 国际货物买卖

国际货物买卖.ppt

国际货物买卖

lhxy88688
2010-11-06 0人阅读 0 0 0 暂无简介 举报

简介:本文档为《国际货物买卖ppt》,可适用于高等教育领域

PestanavKarinolCorpPestanavKarinolCorpHUBBART,JudgeThisisanactionfordamagesbasedonacontractforthesaleofgoodsThedefendantsellerandothersprevailedinthisactionafteranonjurytrialintheCircuitCourtfortheEleventhJudicialCircuitofFloridaTheplaintiffbuyerappealsThecentralissuepresentedforreviewiswhetheracontractforthesaleofgoods,whichstipulatestheplacewherethegoodssoldaretobesentbycarrierbutcontains(a)noexplicitprovisionsallocatingtheriskoflosswhilethegoodsareinthepossessionofthecarrierand(b)nodeliverytermssuchasFOBplaceofdestination,isashipmentcontractoradestinationcontractundertheUniformCommercialCodeWeholdthatsuchacontract,withoutmore,constitutesashipmentcontractwhereintheriskoflosspassestothebuyerwhenthesellerdulydeliversthegoodstothecarrierunderareasonablecontractofcarriageforshipmenttothebuyerAccordingly,weaffirmThecriticalfactsofthiscasearesubstantiallyundisputedOnMarch,,NahimAmarB(theplaintiffPedroPPestana’sdecedentherein)whowasaresidentofMexicoenteredintoacontract(缔约)throughhisauthorizedrepresentativewiththeKarinolCorporation(thedefendantherein)whichisanexportingcompanylicensedtodobusinessinFloridaandoperatingoutofMiamiThetermsofthiscontractwereembodiedinaonepageinvoicewritteninSpanishandpreparedbythedefendantKarinolBythetermsofthiscontract,theplaintiff’sAmaragreedtopurchaseelectronicwatchesfromthedefendantKarinolfor$,Anotationwasprintedatthebottomofthecontractwhich,translatedintoEnglish,readsasfollows:”pleasesendthemerchandiseincardboardboxesdulystrappedwithmetalbandsvia(经由通过)airparcelposttoChetumalDocumentstoBancodeCommercioDeQuintanoRooSA”TherewerenoprovisionsinthecontractwhichspecificallyallocatedtheriskoflossonthegoodssoldwhileinthepossessionofthecarriertherewerealsonoFOB,FAS,CIForCFtermscontainedinthecontractADownpaymentonthepurchasepriceofthegoodssoldwasmadepriortoshipmentOnApril,,thereissufficientevidence,althoughdisputed,thatthedefendantKarinoldeliveredthewatchesintwocartonstoitsagentAmericanInternationalFreightForwarders,Inc(theseconddefendantherein)forforwardingtotheplaintiff’sdecedentAmarThedefendantAmericaninsuredthetwocartonswithFidelityCasualtyCompanyofNewYork(thethirddefendantherein)namingthedefendantKarinolastheinsuredThedefendantAmericanasfreightforwarderstrappedthecartonsinquestionwithmetalbandsanddeliveredthemtoTACAInternationalAirlinesconsignedtooneBernardSmith,arepresentativeoftheplaintiff’sdecedent,inBelizeCity,Belize,CentralAmericaTheshipmentwasarrangedbyKarinolinthismannerinaccordwithapriorunderstandingbetweenthepartiesastherewerenodirectflightsfromMiami,FloridatoChetumal,MeicoMrSmithwastotakecustodyofthegoodsonbehalfoftheplaintiff’sdecentinBelizeandarrangefortheretransportbytrucktotheplaintiff’sdecedentAmarinChetumal,MexicoOnApril,,thecartonsarrivedbyairinBelizeCityandwerestoredbytheairlineinthecustomsandairfreightcargoroomMrSmithwasdulynotifiedandthereupontheplaintiff'sdecedentmadepaymentonthebalancedueunderthecontracttothedefendantKarinolOnMay,,MrSmithtookcustodyofthecartonsafteracertaindelaywasexperiencedintransferringthecartonstoacustomswarehouseEitheronthatdayorshortlythereafter,thecartonswereopenedbyMrSmithandcustomsofficialsaswasrequiredforclearancepriortothetruckshipmenttoChetumal,MexicoTherewerenowatchescontainedinthecartonsThedefendantKarinolanditsinsurancecarrierthedefendantFidelityweredulynotified,butbotheventuallyrefusedtomakegoodonthelossTheplaintiffPedroPPestana,asrepresentativeoftheEstateofNahimAmarB,deceased,filedsuitagainstthedefendantKarinolastheseller,thedefendantAmericanasKarinol'sagentfreightforwarder,andthedefendantFidelityasthedefendantKarinol'sinsurerThecomplaintallegedthatthedefendantKarinolenteredintoacontracttoshipmerchandisefromMiami,FloridatoChetumal,Mexicowiththeplaintiff'sdecedent,thatthedefendantAmericanasfreightforwarderandagentofthedefendantKarinolacceptedshipmentofsuchmerchandise,thatthemerchandisewaslost,stolenormisplacedwhileinthecareandcustodyofthedefendantKarinolandthedefendantAmerican,thatthedefendantsKarinolandAmericanfailedtomakedeliverytotheplaintiff'sdecedentatChetumal,Mexico,andthatthereexistedaliabilitypolicywiththedefendantFidelityforthebenefitoftheplaintiff'sdecedentThecomplaintsoughtdamagestogetherwithcourtcostsandreasonableattorneysfeesAllthedefendantsdulyfiledanswerstothecomplaintwhereinliabilitywasdeniedThedefendantKarinolfiledacrosscomplaintagainstthedefendantAmericanThetrialcourtafteranonjurytrialfoundforallofthedefendantsinthiscauseThisappealfollowsTherearetwotypesofsalescontractsunderFlorida'sUniformCommercialCodewhereinacarrierisusedtotransportthegoodssold:ashipmentcontractandadestinationcontractAshipmentcontractisconsideredthenormalcontractinwhichthesellerisrequiredtosendthesubjectgoodsbycarriertothebuyerbutisnotrequiredtoguaranteedeliverythereofataparticulardestinationUnderashipmentcontract,theseller,unlessotherwiseagreed,must:()putthegoodssoldinthepossessionofacarrierandmakeacontractfortheirtransportationasmaybereasonablehavingregardforthenatureofthegoodsandotherattendantcircumstances,()obtainandpromptlydeliverortenderindueformanydocumentnecessarytoenablethebuyertoobtainpossessionofthegoodsorotherwiserequiredbytheagreementorbyusageofthetrade,and()promptlynotifythebuyeroftheshipmentOnashipmentcontract,theriskoflosspassestothebuyerwhenthegoodssoldaredulydeliveredtothecarrierforshipmenttothebuyerAdestinationcontract,ontheotherhand,isconsideredthevariantcontractinwhichthesellerspecificallyagreestodeliverthegoodssoldtothebuyerataparticulardestinationandtobeartheriskoflossofthegoodsuntiltenderofdeliveryThiscanbeaccomplishedbyexpressprovisioninthesalescontracttothateffectorbytheuseofdeliverytermssuchasFOB(placeofdestination)Underadestinationcontract,thesellerisrequiredtotenderdeliveryofthegoodssoldtothebuyerattheplaceofdestinationTheriskoflossundersuchacontractpassestothebuyerwhenthegoodssoldaredulytenderedtothebuyerattheplaceofdestinationwhileinthepossessionofthecarriersoastoenablethebuyertotakedeliveryThepartiesmustexplicitlyagreetoadestinationcontractotherwisethecontractwillbeconsideredashipmentcontractWheretheriskoflossfallsontheselleratthetimethegoodssoldarelostordestroyed,thesellerisliableindamagestothebuyerfornondeliveryunlessthesellertendersaperformanceinreplacementforthelostordestroyedgoodsOntheotherhand,wheretheriskoflossfallsonthebuyeratthetimethegoodssoldarelostordestroyed,thebuyerisliabletothesellerforthepurchasepriceofthegoodssoldIntheinstantcase,wedealwiththenormalshipmentcontractinvolvingthesaleofgoodsThedefendantKarinolpursuanttothiscontractagreedtosendthegoodssold,ashipmentofwatches,totheplaintiff'sdecedentinChetumal,MexicoTherewasnospecificinthecontractbetweenthepartieswhichallocatedtheriskoflossonthegoodssoldwhileintransitInaddition,therewerenodeliverytermssuchasFOBChetumalcontainedinthecontractAllagreethatthereissufficientevidencethatthedefendantKarinolperformeditsobligationsasasellerundertheUniformCommercialCodeifthiscontractisconsideredashipmentcontractKarinolputthegoodssoldinthepossessionofacarrierandmadeacontractforthegoodssafetransportationtotheplaintiff'sdecedentKarinolalsopromptlynotifiedtheplaintiff'sdecedentoftheshipmentandtenderedtosaidpartythenecessarydocumentstoobtainpossessionofthegoodssoldTheplaintiffPestanacontends,however,thatthecontracthereinisadestinationcontractinwhichtheriskoflossonthegoodssolddidnotpassuntildeliveryonsuchgoodshadbeentenderedtohimatChetumal,MexicoaneventwhichneveroccurredHereliesforthispositiononthenotationatthebottomofthecontractbetweenthepartieswhichprovidesthatthegoodsweretobesenttoChetumal,MexicoWecannotagreeA"sendto"or"shipto"termisapartofeverycontractinvolvingthesaleofgoodswherecarriageiscontemplatedandhasnosignificanceindeterminingwhetherthecontractisashipmentordestinationcontractforriskoflosspurposesAssuch,the"sendto"termcontainedinthiscontractcannot,withoutmore,convertthisintoadestinationcontractItthereforefollowsthattheriskoflossinthiscaseshiftedtotheplaintiff'sdecedentasbuyerwhenthedefendantKarinolassellerdulydeliveredthegoodstothedefendantfreightforwarderAmericanunderareasonablecontractofcarriageforshipmenttotheplaintiff'sdecedentinChetumal,MexicoThedefendantKarinol,itsagentthedefendantAmerican,anditsinsurerthedefendantFidelitycouldnotbeheldliabletotheplaintiffinthisactionThetrialcourtproperlyenteredjudgmentinfavorofallthedefendantshereinAffirmedQuestionQuestionWhatisthefocusofdisputeaboutthiscaseInFlorida,theUniformCommercialCoderegulatedtwokindsofcontractsforthesaleofgoods,whataretheyAndwhatthedifferencebetweenthemabouttheseller'sobligationsAccordingtotheviewofthejudgeofthiscase,whetherKarinolhasfulfilledthecontractobligationsWhat'sPestana’sopinionWhatisyouropinionHowdidtheysharetheriskofthegoodsinthiscaseDoyouagreewiththeviewofthejudge

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