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首页 Chap+2+International+Sales+of__+Goods.ppt

Chap+2+International+Sales+of__+Goods.ppt

Chap+2+International+Sales+of__…

上传者: lhxy88688 2010-11-06 评分 0 0 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《Chap+2+International+Sales+of__+Goodsppt》,可适用于高等教育领域,主题内容包含InternationalSalesofGoodsInternationalSalesofGoodscataloguecatalogueVocabu符等。

InternationalSalesofGoodsInternationalSalesofGoodscataloguecatalogueVocabularycontent:topicQuestionsVocabularyVocabularyUCC:abbrUniformCommercialCoderatification:confirmationapprovalCISG:abbrtheUnitedNationsConventiononContractsforSalesofGoods()UNCITRAL:abbrtheUnitedNationsCommissiononInternationalTradeLawLDC:abbrLessDevelopedCountryUNIDROIT:abbrtheInternationalInstitutefortheUnificationofPrivateLawhttp:wwwunidroitorgOAS:abbrtheOrganizationofAmericanStateshttp:wwwoasorgNMEs:abbrNonmarketEconomiesWriting:termincludesprinting,lithography,photographyandothermodesofrepresentationorreproductionofwordsinavariableformOffer:aproposal,writtenororal,togiveordosomethingItmaybeexpressorimpliedfromconductDelivery:thevoluntaryandformaltransferofpossessionunderCISG,relatingtotransferofpossessionorcontrolofthegoodsEXW:abbrExWorksFCA:abbrFreeCarrierFOB:abbrFreeOnBoardCFR:abbrCostandFreightCIF:abbrCost,InsuranceandFreightCPT:abbrCarriagePaidToCIP:abbrCarriageandInsurancePaidToDAF:abbrDeliveredatFrontierDES:abbrDeliveredExShipDEQ:abbrDeliveredExQuayDDU:abbrDeliveredDutyUnpaidDDP:abbrDeliveredDutyPaidUETA:abbrtheUniformElectronicTransactionsActUCITA:abbrtheUniformComputerInformationTransactionsActBillofLading:documentusedinforeigntrade,signedbytheshipowner,masterorotheragent,statingthatgoodshavebeenshippedonanamedship,andsettingoutthetermsonwhichtheyhavebeendeliveredtoandreceivedbytheshipownerSEADOCS:abbrCMI:abbrtheCommitteeMaritimeInternationalSWIFT:abbrSocietyforWorldwideInterbankFinancialTelecommunicationBOLERO:abbrIncoterms:InternationalChamberofCommerceTermsforge:tomake,alterorimitate(asawriting)falselywithintenttodefraudMisdelivery:deliveryofthegoodstothewrongpersonunderaBLContent:topicsContent:topicsTopicTheUNConventiononContractsfortheInternationalSaleofGoods(CISG)TopicTheSphereofApplicationofCISGTopicChoiceofLawClausesTopicOtherScopeIssuesTopicGeneralProvisionsofCISGTopicContractFormationTopicSeller’sObligationsTopicRemediesforSeller’sBreachTopicBuyer’sObligationsTopicRiskofLossTopicRemediesforBuyer’sBreachTopicTheUNDIDROITPrinciplesofInternationalCommercialContractsTopicCommercialTermsTopicInternationalElectronicCommerceTopicThe“paymentAgainstDocuments”TransactionTopicBillsofLadingTopicMisdeliveryTopicMisdescriptionTopicTheForgedBillofLadingTopicElectronicBillsofLadingTopicTheCISGTopicTheCISGTheunitedNationsConventiononContractsfortheInternationalSaleofGoods((hereafterCISG)governsthesaleofgoodsbetweenparitiesintheUSandpartiesinoversixtyothercountries,unlesstheparitiestothesalecontracthaveexpressly“optout”oftheConventionCISGenteredintoforceonJanuary,,thirteenmonthsaftertheUShadratifiedtheConventionanddepositeditsinstrumentsofratificationwiththeUNAsofJuly,,thereweresixtytwoContractingStatestoCISGrepresentingtwothirdsoftheworld’stradeingoodsOthercountriesareexpectedtoratifyoradoptCISGinthenearfutureCISGwasdraftedbyUNCTRAL,andadoptedandopenedforsignatureandratificationbyaUNsponsoreddiplomaticconferenceheldatViennainUNCTRALisnottheonlyinternationalorganizationcurrentlymakingproposalsfortheunificationandharmonizationofinternationallawTheUNIDROITheldadiplomaticconferenceinTorontointoadopttheConventiononInternationalLeaseFinancingInaddition,UNIDROIThaspreparedandissuedinthePrincipleofInternationalCommercialContractsTheprinciplesofInternationalCommercialContractsareapplicabletoallcontracts,notjustsalesofgoods,andtheirprovisionsaresetforthinmoregeneraltermsTopicTheSphereofApplicationofCISGTopicTheSphereofApplicationofCISGCISGenteredintoforceonJanuary,,andtheUSwasoneofthetwelveoriginalContractingStatesThemainpurposeofCISGistoavoidconflictsoflawproblems,nottoaggravatethemThefirstsixarticleofCISGdefineitssphereofapplicationArticlerequiresthatasaleofgoodscontractbeboth“international”andalsobearastatedrelationtoaContractingbytheConventionIndeterminingwhether“acontractisfortheinternationalsaleofgoods,“,CISGdosenotdefine“contract”,“sale”,or“goods”,butArticledoesdefine“international”TheConventiondoesnot,however,governallcontractsfortheinternationalsaleofgoods,butonlythosecontractswhichhaveasubstantialrequirementthatis,Stateswhichratified,accepted,approved,oraccededtotheConventionsoastobecomepartiestotheConventionTheUSdeclaredareservationunderArticlethatitwouldnotbeboundbyArticle()(b)Thus,theUSversionoftheConventionisthatitisnotapplicablewhenacontractisbetweenpartieshavingplacesofbusinessindifferentStatesandonlyoneStatesisaContractingStates,eventhoughchoice–oflawrulesleadtotheapplicationofthelawoftheContractingStatesTopicChoiceofLawClausesTopicChoiceofLawClausesUnderCISGArticle,thepartiesmayexpresslydeterminenottobegovernedbytheConventionHowever,ifsuchadecisionismade,caremustbeusedindraftingsuchastatementofexclusionIfthepartiesdecidetoexcludetheConvention,itshouldbeexpresslyexcludedbylanguagewhichsatesthatitdoesnotapplyandalsostateswhatlawshallnotgovernthecontractTopicOtherScopeIssuesTopicOtherScopeIssuesCISGArticleexpresslyincludescontractsforthesaleofgoodsnotyetproduced,unlessthe“buyer”undertakestosupply“asubstantialpart“ofthenecessarymaterialsSalesinvolvingacombinationofgoodsandservicesarealwaysapotentialproblem,andArticleincludessuchcontractsunless“thepreponderantpart”ofseller’sobligationconcerns“labourorotherservices”TheConventiondoesnotdefine“goods”,butArticledoesexpresslyexcludecontractsforthesaleofcommercialpaper,investmentsecurities,ships,aircraft,andelectricityOntheotherhand,CISGArticleexpresslyexcludesinternationalsalesofgoodstoconsumers,sothattheConventionwouldnotconflictwithconsumersprotectionlaws,whichareoften“mandatorylaw”ExecutionsalesandauctionsarealsoexpresslyexcludedOnefurtherlimitationontheapplicationofCISGisthatitsprovisionsdonotgovernalloftheissueswhichmayariseunderacontractwhichistotheConventionTheConventiondoesnotdefine“contractofsale,“sothatitsapplicationtosometypesoftransactionsisproblematicKnownproblemsinclude“consignments”CasesintheUSandabroadhaveheldthatCISGdoesnotapplyto“distribution”and“turnkeyproject”contractsCISGmaycoverthesalesaspectofaconditionalsale,butnotitssecuredtransactionaspectsTopicGeneralProvisionsofCISGTopicGeneralProvisionsofCISGArticlecontainits“generalprinciples”ArticleisdesignedtoassistininterpretationoftheConventionitselfCISGArticle()isintendedtoinhibitlocalcourtswhichdecidedisputesundertheConventionfromapplyinglocallawtotheseinternationaldisputes,ratherthantheConventionArticle()continuesthisapproachinregardtosupplementaryprinciplesoflaw,or“gapfillers”UnlikethecorrespondingprovisionintheUCCArticleattemptstoestablishrulesforinterpretingthecontractitself,anditstermsItestablishesathreetierhierarchyArticle()allowsthepartiestoinclude“anyusage”towhichtheyhaveagreedArticle()concernstheincorporationofusagesbyimplicationBothlessdevelopedcountries(LDCs)andnonmarketeconomics(NMEs)soughttolimittheapplicationbyimplicationofusageIftheArticlereservationhasbeendeclared,thepartiesmaynotagreeotherwiseunderArticleArticleprovidesthatacontractfortheinternationalsaleofgoodsisenforceable,eventhoughitisnotwritten,andmaybeprovenbyanymeansArticletosatisfythe“writing”requirementArticleandonlymakeunenforceablethosecontractswhichare“otherthaninwriting”,andArticlethendefines“writing,”asusedinCISG,ToincludeatelexortelegramTopicContractFormationTopicContractFormationThecontractformationprovisions(Articles)formaseparatepartofCISGPartIIOffer,acceptanceandconsideration,thosethreeelementsofcontractsformationarenotpresentinotherlegalsystemsThus,itshouldnotbesurprisingtolearnthatCISGhasnorequirementsof“consideration”initscontractformationprovisionsInsummaryandincomparisontotheUCC,CISGreducestheflexibilityofthepartiesbyprohibitingsomeopenpricetermsCISGexpandsthe“firmoffer”conceptandappliesittomoreoffersandinthebattleoftheforms,CISGmaydelaytheformationofacontractthroughthe“mirrorimage”rule,andmayusethe“lastshot”principletomaketheofferee’stermscontrolthetransactionHowever,onthelastpoints,boththecourtsandtheauthorswhohavewrittenonthesubjecthavesuggestedwaysofavoidingthistraditionalanalysisTopicSeller’sObligationsTopicSeller’sObligationsUnderCISGArticlethesellerisobligatedtodeliverthegoodsandanyrelateddocumentsandtransferthegoodsandanyrelateddocumentsandtotransfer“thepropertyinthegoods”tothebuyerInaddition,thesellerisobligatedtodelivergoodswhichconformtothecontractastoquantity,qualityandtitleIndeliverycontracts,sellermaybeobligatedtodeliverthegoodstobuyer’splace,ortoasubbuyer’splace,ortoanylocationspecifiedInashipmentcontract,sellerhasnoobligationtodeliverthegoodstoanyparticularplace,butitisclearthattransportationofthegoodsbyanindependentthirdpartycarrierisinvolvedThecontractmayrequiresellertotakemorethanoneactiontoaccomplishitsobligationof“delivery”ThemajorunresolvedissueistheextenttowhichlocallawregulatingdisclaimerswillimpactontheinternationalcontractsgovernedbyCISGSeller’sobligationunderCISGArticleconcerningtitletothegoodsunderCISGistodeliverthegoodsnotonlyfreefromanyencumbrancesontheirtitle,butalsofreefromanyclaimofathirdpartyInadditiontogoodtitle,sellerisobligatedtodeliverthegoodsfreefrompatent,trademarkandcopyrightclaimsassertableunderthelawofthe“buyer’splaceofbusiness”ortheplacewherebothpartiesexpectthegoodstobeusedorresoldTopicRemediesforSeller’sBreachTopicRemediesforSeller’sBreachIfsellerbreachesanyofitsobligations,buyerhasthreebasictypesofremedies:SpecificperformanceavoidanceofthecontractactionfordamagesInaddition,thereisapotentialselfhelpremedyunderArticleAstospecificperformance,CISGArticlegivesbuyerwhohasnotreceiveddeliveryarighttospecificperformanceAnypreferenceforthisremedymustarisefrombuyer’sperspective,notfromthecourt’sAsto“avoidanceofthecontract,”whichiscomparableto“cancellationofthecontract”atcommonlawandunderUCC(),CISGpermitsbuyertousethisremedyonlyiftherehasbeena“fundamentalbreach”byseller,regardlessofwhenthebreachoccursCISGArticleprovidetheaggrievedbuyerwithanactionfordamagesThereisnorequirementthatbuyerprovesellerwasat“fault”Wheresimilargoodsmaybepurchasedinthemarket,themostusualmeasuresoftheaggrievedbuyer’sdamagesareeither:()thedifferencebetweenthepriceofcoverandthecontractprice,or()thedifferencebetweenthemarketpriceforthegoodsandthecontractpriceTopicRiskofLossTopicRiskofLossThebasicrule,underCISGanddomesticlaw,isthatbuyerbearstheriskoflosstothegoodsduringtheirtransportationbyacarrier,unlessthecontractprovidesotherwiseThecontractwilloftencontainatermwhichexpresslyallocatestheriskoflossandsuchtermssupersedetheCISGprovisionsInmostsituations,titleandriskaretreatedseparatelyThus,manipulationoftitlethroughtheuseofdocumentsoftitle,suchasnegotiablebillsoflading,isirrelevantandhasnoeffectonthepointoftransferofriskoflossJustastitleandriskaretreatedseparately,soalsobreachandriskaretreatedseparatelyHowever,ifsellerdoescommitafundamentalbreachinshipmentcontract,furtherdamagetothegoodsduringtransitwillnotdeprivebuyerofitsrighttoavoidthecontractunderCISGArticleTopicRemediesforBuyer’sBreachTopicRemediesforBuyer’sBreachThepreferredremedyforanaggrievedsellerisacauseofactionfortheprice,whichisseller’sfunctionalequivalentofanactionforspecificperformanceInaddition,sellermaywishtoreclaimthegoodsiftheyaredeliveredorobtainsomeprotectionforthemifthecontractisavoidedandtheyarerejectedAstoseller’srecoveryoftheprice,CISGArticlegivetheselleranunqualifiedrighttorequirebuyertopaytheprice,butnoCISGArticleexpresslystatesthatthesellerhasacauseofactionforpaymentofthepriceAstodamages,CISGArticleprovidetheunpaidsellerwithanactionfordamagesandthegeneraprinciplesarethesameasinthediscussionogbuyer’sremediesforseller’sbreachTopicTheUNIDROITPrinciplesofInternationalCommercialContractsTopicTheUNIDROITPrinciplesofInternationalCommercialContractsTheUNIDROITPrinciplesforInternationalCommercialContractsrepresentadifferentapproachtounificationandharmonizationofinternationalcommerciallawIntransactionstowhichCISGisapplicable,thecourtswillusuallyapplytherulesofCISGTheUNIDROITPrinciplesareonesourceofsuchgeneralprinciple,whereCISGissilentorambiguousTopromotemaximizationoftheirpersuasivevalue,UNIDROITassembledindividualexpertsandrequestedthattheydraftthePrinciplestoreflectcurrenttradepracticesTheprinciplesweredraftedoveraperiodofyears,andwereadoptedbyUNIDROIT’sGoverningCouncilinMay,TheyaremorecomprehensivethanCISGThePrinciplesprovidetwodistinctlydifferentpathsforassertingexcusefromperformancebychangedcircumstancesOneislabelled“ForceMajeure”andtheotheris“Hardship”TopicCommercialTermsTopicCommercialTermsIncotermsgivesthepartiesmenuofthirteendifferentcommercialtermstodescribethediliveryobligationsofsellerandthereciprocalobligationsofthebuyertoaccommodatedeliveryTheyinclude:EXWFCAFASFOBCFRCIFCPTCIPDAFDESDEQDDUDDPUndertheIncotermsEXW(includingExFactoryandExWarehouse),thesellerneedsonlyto“tender”thegoodstothebuyerbyplacingthematbuyer’sdisposalatanamedplaceofdeliveryUndertheFCA,thesellerisobligatedtodeliverthegoodsintothecustodyofacarrier,usuallythefirstcarrierinamultimodaltransportationschemeUndertheFAS,thesellerisobligatedtodeliverthegoodsalongsideashiparrangedforandnamedbythebuyeraanamedportofshipmentUndertheFOB,thesellerisobligatedtodeliverthegoodsonboardashiparrangedforandnamedbythebuyeratanamedportofshipmentUndertheCIF,thesellerisobligatedtoarrangeforbothtransportationandinsurancetoanameddestinationportandthentodeliverthegoodsonboardtheshiparrangedforbythesellerTheIncotermsCFRissimilartotheCIFterm,exceptthatsellerhasnoobligationswithrespecttoeitherarrangingorpayingforinsurancecoverageofthegoodsduringtransportationTheIncotermsCIPandCPTtermsaresimilartoitsCIFandCFR,exceptthattheymaybeusedforanytypeoftransportation,includingmultimodaltransportationIncotermsprovidesfivedifferentcommercialtermsfor“destination”or“arrival”contractsUndertheDES,deliveryoccursandtheriskoflosspasseswhenthegoodsareplacedatbuyer’sdisposalonboardshipatthenameddestinationportUndertheDEQ,thegoodsmustbeplacedatbuyer’sdisposalonthequayorwharfatthenameddestinationportHowever,thepartieswhouseaDEQtermshouldfurtherspecifyeither“DutyPaid”or“DutyUnpaid”UndertheDAF,itismostappropriately,usedwithrailorroadtransportation,deliveryoccursandtheriskoflosspasseswhenthegoodsareplacedatbuyer’sdisposalatanamedplaceatthefrontierUndertheDDP,deliveryoccursandtheriskoflosspasseswhenthegoodsareplacedatbuyer’sdisposalatthenamedplaceinthecountryofdestination,clearforimportationintothatcountryInaDDUshipment,sellermustalsoprovidea“deliverorderandortheusualtransportdocument”andanexportlicenseTopicInternationalElectronicCommerceTopicInternationalElectronicCommerceTherecentphenomenalgrowthofECommercecaughtthelegalregimesoftheworldunpreparedEachlegalregimehasadaptedinadifferentmannerThus,thereislittleconsistencyintherulesapplicabletoECommercetransactionswhichcrossnationalbordersSuchalackofconsistencyisnotnew,buttheproblemsaremagnifiedbyanotheraspectofECommerceThepartiesoftendonotknowwhenanECommercetransactionisinfactacrossnationalboundariesUNCITRALhasalsodevelopedaModelLawonElectronicCommerce,inTheModelLawisnowavailabletoalllegalregimesforenactmenttoprovideguidanceforEMerchantsandtheircustomersTheModelLawisaminimalistapproachtolegislation,seekingtofacilitateECommercetransactionsandnotingtoregulatethemTopicThe“paymentAgainstDocuments”TransactionTopicThe“paymentAgainstDocuments”TransactionThreeoftheseproblemsareuniquelyrelatedtoanytransactionusingabilloflading,andwillbeconsideredinthematerialsbelow:

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