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首页 2009级陈玲争端解决机制.ppt

2009级陈玲争端解决机制.ppt

2009级陈玲争端解决机制.ppt

上传者: lhxy88688 2010-11-06 评分 0 0 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《2009级陈玲争端解决机制ppt》,可适用于高等教育领域,主题内容包含TOPICTOPICContractprovisionsaboutdisputeforumandgoverninglawTheforumselect符等。

TOPICTOPICContractprovisionsaboutdisputeforumandgoverninglawTheforumselectionClauseTheforumselectionClauseForumnonconvenienceisdoctrinewhichallowsacourttorefusetoacceptjurisdicitionoveracase“DoctrineofForumNonConvenient”“不方便法院”法院对案件的管辖需要与该国有一定的联系被选择的第三国法院可能会以“不方便法院”为理由拒绝对特定案件行使管辖权。Eg:《欧洲关于法院对民、商事管辖权和判决执行的公约》TheCOGSAhaslongbeenconsideredthearchetypeof“mandatorylaw”TheCOGSA:UnitedNationsConventionontheCarriageofGoodsbySea,《年联合国海上货物运输国际公约》或《汉堡规则》。《汉堡规则》第条《汉堡规则》第条Jurisdiction     InjudicialproceedingsrelatingtocarriageofgoodsunderthisConventiontheplaintiff,athisoption,mayinstituteanactioninacourtwhich,accordingtothelawoftheStatewherethecourtissituated,iscompetentandwithinthejurisdictionofwhichissituatedoneofthefollowingplaces:(a)       theprincipalplaceofbusinessor,intheabsencethereof,thehabitualresidenceofthedefendantor(b)      theplacewherethecontractwasmadeprovidedthatthedefendanthasthereaplaceofbusiness,branchoragencythroughwhichthecontractwasmadeor(c)       theportofloadingortheportofdischargeor(d)      anyadditionalplacedesignatedforthatpurposeinthecontractofcarriagebysea《汉堡规则》《汉堡规则》管辖权:第条依规定原告得在下列地点之一提起诉讼:、被告主要营业所或无主要营业时其通常居所、合同订立地而合同是通过被告在该地的营业所、分支或代理机构订立的、装货港或卸货港、海上运输合同中规定的其他地点。ThechoiceoflawclauseThechoiceoflawclause适用法律条款WherethevalidityoftheChoiceofLawClauseisdeterminedbystates依照目前世界各国的立法与司法实践在国际商事诉讼中一般承认意思自治原则允许当事人协商选择所适用的法律。Autonomyprinciple:意思自治原则thereseemtobetwodifferentapproachesoneoneAreasonablerelation合理联系TheUCCpermitsthepartiestochoosethelawgoverningthecontract,aslongasthetransactionbears“areasonablerelation”tothejurisdictionprovidingthegoverninglawtwotwoUnlimitedautonomy完全自由的意思自治IntheEU,theConventionontheLawApplicabletoContractualObligationalsoallowsunlimitedpartyautonomyTheClosestConnectionTheClosestConnection最密切联系Failingchoiceofthelaw,thecontractisgovernedbythelawoftheplacewithwhichithastheclosestconnection当事人没有选择法律的适用合同的最密切联系地法。是对意思自治原则的补充即在与合同有关的两个或两个以上国家的法律中选择与合同最密切联系的国家的法律加以适用。TopicTopicInternationalcommercialarbitrationWhyarbitrationWhyarbitrationADR(alternativedisputeresolution)选择性的解决争议的方法ThegrowthofICAisinpartaretreatfromthevicissitudesanduncertaintiesofinternationalbusinesseslitigationThedisadventageofinternationalbusinesseslitigation:Jurisdiction管辖权、ProceduralIssues程序问题、法律规则、法院执行。TheadventagesofICATheadventagesofICAOneofthemostattractiveattributesofICAistheenforceabilityinnationalcourtsofarbitralawardsundertheNewYorkConventionAnothermajoradvantageofICAisthesupportoflegalregimesthatgivearbitrationagreementsdispositiveeffects“一裁终局”ThedisadventageofICAThedisadventageofICAOneoftheleastattractiveattributesofICAistheminimalavailabilityofpretrialprovisionalremediesEg:诉前财产保全,诉前证据保全TypesofinternationalcommercialarbitrationsTypesofinternationalcommercialarbitrationsTherearetwobasictypesofinternationalcommercialarbitration:adhocandinstitutionalAdhocarbitrationinvolvesselectionofaspecificarbitrationcenteror“court,”oftenaccompaniedbyitsownrulesofarbitrationInstitutionalarbitrationpresupposesacertainamountofgoodwillandflexibilitybetweenthepartiesItcanbespeedyandlesscostlythanAdhocarbitrationInternationalarbitralrules:Internationalarbitralrules:常设性仲裁机构都制定有自己的仲裁规则有的仲裁机构规定如果当事人选择该仲裁机构则该机构的仲裁规则必须适用有的仲裁机构则允许当事人自行决定采用其他的国际商事仲裁规则。临时仲裁庭进行仲裁双方当事人可以自由选择仲裁规则。Internationalarbitralrules:Internationalarbitralrules:UNCITRALandICSIDUNCITRAL:TheModelInternationalCommercialArbitrationRuleswereissuedinbytheUNITRALTheUNITRALRulesareintendedtobeacceptedinalllegalsystemsandinallpartsoftheworldUNCITRALUNCITRAL只要当事人在合同约定“由本合同发生的或与本合同有关的任何争议、争端或请求或有关本合同的违约、终止或失败应按目前有效的联合国国际委员会仲裁规则予以解决。”InadditiontoitsModelArbitrationRules,UNCITRALhasalsopromulgatedaModelLawonInternationalCommercialArbitrationaModelLawonInternationalCommercialArbitration:该示范法不是国际公约仅建议各国采用各国可根据自己的国情予以调整和修改。TheArbitralInstituteoftheStockholmChamberofCommercehaswillingtoworkwiththeUNITRALRules,ashastheLondonCourtofArbitrationPartieswhowishtoreferanydisputetotheLondonCourtofArbitrationmayuseitsmodelclauseTheArbitralInstituteoftheStockholmChamberofCommerceTheArbitralInstituteoftheStockholmChamberofCommerce斯德哥尔摩商会仲裁院:有自己的仲裁规则不过仲裁院可以根据当事人的合意采用《联合国国际贸易法委员会仲裁规则》的程序规定。当事人可以自由选择仲裁员。仲裁规则:当事人自由选择选择与合同联系最密切的国家的法律。仲裁裁决在仲裁庭组成之日起年内作出。ICSID:ICSID:TheConventionontheSettlementofInvestmentDisputesBetweenStatesandNationalsofOtherStatesprovidesfortheestablishmentofanInternationalCenterfortheSettlementofInvestmentDispute,asanonfinancialorganoftheWorldBankICSIDICSIDICSIDisdesignedtoserveasaforumforconciliationandforarbitrationfordisputesbetweenprivateinvestorsandhostgovernmentsrules:rules:Article:ThejurisdictionoftheCentreshallextendtoanylegaldisputearisingdirectlyoutofaninvestment,betweenaContractingState(oranyconstituentsubdivisionoragencyofaContractingStatedesignatedtotheCentrebythatState)andanationalofanotherContractingState,whichthepartiestothedisputeconsentinwritingtosubmittotheCentreWhenthepartieshavegiventheirconsent,nopartymaywithdrawitsconsentunilaterally公约管辖权成立的三个条件:、争议一方为缔约国另一方为缔约他国的国民、争议必须是直接因投资而产生的法律争议、必须经双方书面同意提交ICSID仲裁解决《公约》第条:()TheTribunalshalldecideadisputeinaccordancewithsuchrulesoflawasmaybeagreedbythepartiesIntheabsenceofsuchagreement,theTribunalshallapplythelawoftheContractingStatepartytothedispute(includingitsrulesontheconflictoflaws)andsuchrulesofinternationallawasmaybeapplicable()TheTribunalmaynotbringinafindingof nonliquet onthegroundofsilenceorobscurityofthelaw()仲裁庭不得借口法律无明文规定或含义不清而暂不作出裁决()Theprovisionsofparagraphs()and()shallnotprejudicethepoweroftheTribunaltodecideadispute exaequoetbono ifthepartiessoagree《公约》第条第款:每一缔约国应承认依照本公约作出的裁决具有约束力并在其领土内履行该裁决所加的金钱上的义务如同该裁决是该国法院的最后判决一样……。强调每一缔约国都应承认和执行缔约国即不能进行实质性或程序性的审查也不得以任何理由(包括公共秩序保留)决绝承认和执行裁决。TopicTopicEnforcementofarbitralawards:theNewYorkConventiontheNewYorkConventiontheNewYorkConvention年《承认与执行外国仲裁裁决的公约》Today,成为有关承认和执行外国仲裁裁决的一个最全面、最有影响的国际公约。China,jionedinitat该公约于年月日起对我国生效。《纽约公约》第条第款ThisConventionshallapplytotherecognitionandenforcementofarbitralawardsmadeintheterritoryofaStateotherthantheStatewheretherecognitionandenforcementofsuchawardsaresought,andarisingoutofdifferencesbetweenpersons,whetherphysicalorlegalItshallalsoapplytoarbitralawardsnotconsideredasdomesticawardsintheStatewheretheirrecognitionandenforcementaresought由于自然人法人间的争执而引起的仲裁裁决在一个国家的领土内做成而在另一个国家请求承认和执行时适用本公约。《纽约公约》第三条:《纽约公约》第三条:EachContractingStateshallrecognizearbitralawardsasbindingandenforcetheminaccordancewiththerulesofprocedureoftheterritorywheretheawardisreliedupon,undertheconditionslaiddowninthefollowingarticlesThereshallnotbeimposedsubstantiallymoreonerousconditionsorhigherfeesorchargesontherecognitionorenforcementofarbitralawardstowhichthisConventionappliesthanareimposedontherecognitionorenforcementofdomesticarbitralawards《纽约公约》第四条:《纽约公约》第四条:Toobtaintherecognitionandenforcementmentionedintheprecedingarticle,thepartyapplyingforrecognitionandenforcementshall,atthetimeoftheapplication,supply:(a)Thedulyauthenticatedoriginalawardoradulycertifiedcopythereof(b)TheoriginalagreementreferredtoinarticleIIoradulycertifiedcopythereofIfthesaidawardoragreementisnotmadeinanofficiallanguageofthecountryinwhichtheawardisreliedupon,thepartyapplyingforrecognitionandenforcementoftheawardshallproduceatranslationofthesedocumentsintosuchlanguageThetranslationshallbecertifiedbyanofficialorsworntranslatororbyadiplomaticorconsularagentInovercountries,theenforcementofarbitralawardsisfacilitatedbytheNewYorkConventionTheConventioncommitsthecourtsineachContractingStatetorecognizeandenforcearbitrationclausesandseparatearbitrationagreementsfortheresolutionofinternationalcommercialdisputesAlso,therearegroundsthatlistedintheConventionforrefusaltoenforceEg:、《公约》第条第款第项:如果仲裁协议的双方当事人依对其适用的法律为无行为能力或者依据双方当事人选定适用的法律或者没有选定的时候依据裁决作出地国家的法律该项仲裁协议是无效的。则被请求承认和执行裁决的法院可根据反对裁决当事人的请求拒绝承认和执行该项裁决。、《公约》第条第款第项:一方当事人未能接到选派仲裁员或仲裁审理的适当通知或者他为了任何其他理由不能提出其申诉或答辩者。Cace:一项由某国际商事仲裁机构作出的仲裁裁决胜诉方申请在《纽约公约》成员国B国执行但败诉方能证明作出裁决的国际商事仲裁机构没有按照仲裁规则规定的时间和方式通知当事人指定仲裁员或仲裁庭审理的日期则B国可拒绝执行。、《公约》第条规定:被请求承认和执行外国仲裁裁决的国家的法院如果认为按照该国法律争议事项不能以仲裁方式解决可以主动予以拒绝承认和执行而不需要当事人提出申请和证明。“insurancecontracts保险合同Bankruptcy破产问题RealRight物权Trusts信托UnfairCompetition不正当竞争IntellectualProperty知识产权”《纽约公约》第条第款第项:Therecognitionorenforcementoftheawardwouldbecontrarytothepublicpolicyofthatcountry被申请承认和执行地国法院认定承认和执行外国仲裁裁决有违反内国公共政策的可拒绝承认和执行仲裁裁决。TopicTopicMandatoryrulesandlawEvasionofLaw法律规避EvasionofLaw法律规避Wherethepartiesintentionallyevadethemandatoryorprohibitiveprovisionsoflaw,thelawintendedbythepartiershallnotapply当事人故意规避强制性或禁止性法律规定的不得适用当事人企图适用的法律。JuscogensismandatoryitispubliclawthatprivatepartiescannotavoidbycontractAsbetweentoecontractingparties,manyprovisionsoflocallawmaybeexcluded(called“jusdispositivum”),buttheapplicabilityofcertainlegalrulesmaynotbeexcluded(called“juscogens”)Anyarbitrationruleschosenbypartiestogoverntheirdisputemaynotbehonoredifsuchrulescontravenea“nonexcludable”mandatoryprovisionofthelocallawThe“juscogens””jusdispositivum”dichotomyisfoundinthelawofmanyEuropeancountriesitisalsofoundintheUCCandlinkedtothe“mandatorylaw”ofUScases

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