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首页 Do Whales Have Belly Buttons

Do Whales Have Belly Buttons.pdf

Do Whales Have Belly Buttons

amigo
2010-11-04 0人阅读 举报 0 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《Do Whales Have Belly Buttonspdf》,可适用于外语资料领域

QuestionsandAnswersAboutWhalesandDolphinsDOWHALESHAVEBELLYBUTTONSDOWHALESHAVEBELLYBUTTONSQuestionsandAnswersAboutWhalesandDolphinsBYMELVINANDGILDABERGERILLUSTRATEDBYHIGGINSBONDBYMELVINANDGILDABERGERILLUSTRATEDBYHIGGINSBONDContentsIntroduction•THELIFEOFAWHALE•TOOTHEDWHALES•BALEENWHALES•Index•AbouttheAuthorsandIllustrator•KEYTOABBREVIATIONScm=centimetercentimetrekg=kilogramkm=kilometerkilometrel=literm=metermetret=tonneTotheWhaleofaTeamatScholasticReferenceMANDGBERGERThisbookaboutthemagnificentanimalsoftheoceanisdedicatedtothemostmagnificentpersonIknow,mysister,DeborahLynnHigginsHIGGINSBONDTextcopyright©byMelvinBergerandGildaBergerIllustrationcopyright©byBarbaraHigginsBondAllrightsreservedPublishedbyScholasticIncSCHOLASTICandassociatedlogosaretrademarksandorregisteredtrademarksofScholasticIncNopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,orstoredinaretrievalsystem,ortransmittedinanyformorbyanymeans,electronic,mechanical,photocopying,recording,orotherwise,withoutwrittenpermissionofthepublisherForinformationregardingpermission,writetoScholasticInc,Attention:PermissionsDepartment,Broadway,NewYork,NYLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataBerger,MelvinDowhaleshavebellybuttonsMelvinGildaBerger:illustratedbyBarbaraHigginsBondSummary:Providesanswerstosuchquestionsaboutvariousspeciesofwhalesanddolphinsas“Doallwhaleshaveteeth”,“Howlongdomostwhaleslive”,“Whydodolphinswhistle”,and“Candolphinssavehumans”WhalesMiscellaneaJuvenileliteratureWhalesMiscellaneaQuestionsandanswersIBerger,GildaIIBond,BarbaraHiggins,illIIITitleQLCBdcCIPACISBNBookdesignbyDavidSaylorandNancySabatoFirstElectronicEdition,JanuaryExpertreaders:RobertCummingsandLisaMielkeAquariumforWildlifeConservation,Brooklyn,NewYorkIntroductionWhyreadaquestionandanswerbookBecauseyou’reakid!AndkidsarecuriousIt’snaturalandimportanttoaskquestionsandlookforanswersThisbookanswersmanyquestionsthatyoumayhave:•Howlongcanwhalesstayunderwater•Howdowhaleskeepintouch•Candolphinssavehumans•WhichwhaleshavethelongestmigrationManyoftheanswerswillsurpriseandamazeyouWehopethey’lltickleyourimaginationMaybetheywillleadyoutoaskmorequestionscallingformoreanswersThat’swhatbeingcuriousisallabout!THELIFEOFAWHALEDowhaleshavebellybuttonsYesWhaleshavebellybuttons,justlikedogsandcats,lionsandtigers,youandmeLiketheseotheranimals,awhaledevelopsinsideitsmother’sbodyTheunbornwhaleisconnectedtoitsmotherbyanumbilicalcordAfterbirth,theumbilicalcordsnapsoffIntime,thecordwithersawayWhat’sleftisabellybuttononthewhale’sundersideArewhalesmammalsYesMammalsareanimalsthatarebornaliveandfeedontheirmothers’milkTheybreatheairandarewarmblooded,keepingthesamebodytemperaturenomatterhowcoldorwarmtheirsurroundingsAndallmammalshavehairevenifit’sonlyafewbristleslikethewhalesArefishmammalsNoFishhatchfromeggsthatfemaleslayalmostanywhereIngeneral,fisharecoldbloodedTheirbodytemperatureisaboutthesameasthewaterinwhichtheyliveTheybreathethroughgills,andmostarecoveredwithhardscalesEventhebiggestsharksarefishsoofcourse,sharksdon’thavebellybuttonsArewhalestheonlymammalsintheseaNoWhalesbelongtoagroupofseadwellingmammalsthatincludesdolphinsandporpoisesTheseanimalsarecalledcetaceans(sihTAYshuns)Cetaceanshavetheshapeoffishandliveinthewater,buttheyaremammalsWalruses,seals,andseaottersarealsomammalsthatliveintheseaButtheyarenotcetaceansNobodywouldmistakethemforfish!HowmanybabiesdowhaleshaveUsuallyonlyonebabyatatimeSometimestwinsareborn,butthisisrareAbabywhaleiscalledacalfFemalewhales,knownascows,carrytheirunbornyoungtomonthsMostcowsgivebirtheverytwotofiveyearsHowarecalvesbornInwaterandusuallytailfirstThisisdifferentfrommostlandmammals,whicharebornheadfirstAfterbirth,thecalfrollsinthewaterlikeabarrelUsingherflippersandbody,themothersetsthecalfrightsideupThenshepushesittothesurfaceforitsfirstbreathofairOftenotherwhales,calledaunts,lendaflipper!WhatdoesacalfeatMother’smilkjustlikeothermammalsItnursesbytakinganippleintoitsmouthThenippleistuckedinsidethecow’sskinfoldThecalfswallowsahugestreamofmilkthatthecowsquirtsintoitsthroatThecalfnursesforshortlengthsoftimebecausethemilkisveryrichEverysooften,thecalfsurfacesforaquickbreathofairThemilkissaidtotastelikeamixtureoffish,liver,milkofmagnesia,andcastoroilButbabywhalesseemtolikeitTheygainasmuchaspounds(kg)aday!HowlongdocalvesnurseForsixmonthstotwoyearsItalldependsonthekindofwhaleHowdowhalesbreatheThroughnostrils,calledblowholesTheblowholesareatthetopoftheheadThisletswhalesbreatheevenwhenmostoftheirbodyisunderthewaterBeforetakingadeepdive,calledsounding,awhalefillsitslungswithairUnderwater,itholdsitsbreathButsoonerorlater,itmustcomeuptothesurfaceforabreathoffreshairButfirstVOOMitblastsoutthestaleair,calledtheblow,ataspeedofaboutmiles(km)anhour!WhatdoesthewhaleblowlooklikeApuffycloudTheairthewhalebreathesoutiswarmandmoistWhenithitsthecolderoutsideair,itformsacloudoftinydropsofwaterItlookslikeyourbreathonacolddaySometimesawhaleblowsjustbelowthesurfaceThentheblowalsospraysseawaterwiththeescapingairThisblowlookslikeafountainAsingleblowcanbeashighasathreestorybuilding!WhaleblowshavedifferentsizesandshapesOnekindisshortandround,forexampleAnotheristallandnarrowSomepeoplecantellonekindofawhalefromanotherjustbythelookofitsblow!DowhaleshavebadbreathSomesaysoSailorsandpeoplewhoworkwithwhalestellusthattheblowsmellsfishyPerhapsthebadsmellcomesfromthewhales’dietandlifeintheseaOnedayyoumaygowhalewatchingandgetveryclosetoalargewhalewhenitblowsThenyoucanfindoutforyourselfifwhaleshavebadbreath!HowlongcanwhalesstayunderwaterFromminutestohoursWhalediveslastfarlongerthanhumandivesEventhebesthumandivercanstayunderwateronlyafewminuteswithoutcomingupforairWhalebloodholdsmoreoxygenthanhumanbloodAlso,takingseveraldeepbreathsbeforeitdivesaddsextraoxygentoawhale’sbloodDuringthedive,thewhaledrawsonthisstoredupsupplyofoxygenWhenit’sgone,thewhalereturnstothesurfaceand“tharsheblows!”DowhaleshaveespeciallylargelungsNoTheyjustmakegooduseofthelungstheydohaveForexample,whenyoubreathedeeplyyoufillaboutonefourthofyourlungswithairButwhenwhalesbreathein,theairfillsalmostalloftheirlungsAlso,whalesuseuptheairintheirlungsmoreslowlythanyoudoThat’sbecauseawhale’sheartbeatgetsslowerwhenitdivesAslowheartbeathelpsstretchthesupplyofairCanwhalesdrownYesWhalesdrownifwaterenterstheirblowholesThishappenswhenwhalesgetsick,hurt,ortangledupinnetsorlinesundertheseaIfawhaleisunabletoswimtothesurfacetobreathe,itwilldiebydrowningWhydowhalessometimesgetstuckonshoreNooneknowsforsureButwhalessometimesswimontoabeachandgetstrandedthereAstrandingoformorewhalesatatimeiscalledamassstrandingStrandedwhalesoftenliveforseveraldaysontheirownIfhightidesweepswateroverthewhales,theymightdrownWithkindtreatment,whalesmaybekeptalivelongerandhelpedbackintotheseaFinWhaleBlowholeFlipperLungDorsalfinFlukesHowdowhaleskeepintouchWithsqueals,clicks,whistles,moans,barks,andothersoundsExpertslisteninonwhale“conversations”TheyhearmessagesgoingoutandanswerscomingbackThereare“HereIam”callsthatseemtokeepwhalestogetherAndthereare“Keepaway”soundsthatseemtowarnofdangerDowhaleshavevocalcordsNo,theydonotAwhalemakessoundsbysqueezingpouchesofairnearitsblowholeItismuchlikesqueezingthebagofabagpipe:ItsetsupvibrationsthatproducethesoundYoucanmakesoundsthewaywhalesdoFillaballoonwithairThenopentheneckatinybitListentothesoundthevibrationsmakeOfcourse,whaleshaveanadvantageThevibrationsinsidetheirhugeheadcavitiesmakesoundsthatcanbeheardhundredsofmilesawayCanyouseeawhale’searsNoAllyoucanseearetwotinyholesintheskinonitsheadTherestoftheearisinsideitsheadjustlikehumanearsButsmallastheyare,theopeningshelpgivewhalesthemostamazinghearingWhalescanhearsoundsmuchhigherandlowerthanyoucanAndsomewhalescanpickupunderwatersoundsfromasfarawayas,miles(,km)!CanwhalesseefarEventhoughsomewhaleshavefairlygoodvision,mostcannotseefarunderthewaterOceanwatersaredarkandmurkyIt’softenimpossibletoseemorethanafewfeet(meters)aheadExpertsthinkthatwhalesspyhop,orpoketheirheadsoutofthewater,totakealookaround!HowdowhalesfindobjectsunderwaterMostusereflectedsound,notsightThewhalemakesasoundWhenthesoundhitsanobjectanotherwhale,afish,oraship,forexampleitechoesbackIftheechocomesbackquickly,thewhaleknowstheobjectiscloseIfittakeslonger,theobjectisfartherawayFindingobjectsbyreflectedsoundiscalledecholocationItletswhales“see”withtheirears,justasyouseewithyoureyesArewhalessmartScientiststhinksoMostwhalesworkwellwithothersoftheirkindTheyformcirclestofightoffenemywhalesTheycometotheaidofcowsthataregivingbirthSometimesamalewhale,calledabull,helpsacowcareforhercalfBrainsizeisonewayscientistsmeasureintelligenceSpermwhales,forexample,havethebiggestbrainofanyanimalinthatsizerangeThiswhale’sbraincanweighuptopounds(kg)abouttimesasmuchasthehumanbrain!WhaleDowhalesswimlikefishNoWhaleshavetwobig,flatbackfins,calledflukesTheflukesarehorizontalBeatingtheflukesupanddownpushesthewhalesforwardinthewaterTheirtwoflippers,whicharelikepaddles,helpthemturn,dive,androllFishtailsaredifferentTheyareupanddown,orverticalFishswimbymovingtheirtailsfromsidetosideHowfastdowhalesswimMostwhalescruisealongatspeedsoftomiles(tokm)anhourThefastestonescansurgeuptomiles(km)anhourWhatkeepswhaleswarmVerythickskinandlotsofblubberTheskinofoneverylargekindofwhale,thespermwhale,measuresinches(cm)thethickestofanyanimalItsblubber,thefattylayerundertheskin,istofeet(tocm)thickNoneedforaheavycoatoffurtokeeptheseanimalswarm!FishWheredowhalesliveInalltheoceansoftheworldSomestayintheicycoldwatersneartheNorthandSouthPolesallyearlongOthersneverleavethewarmtropicalseasAndsomemovearoundalittletofindfoodButafewkindsmigrate,ormovefromplacetoplaceWhalesthatmigratetraveltwiceayearinthespringandinthefallThesejourneysaresomeofthelongestofanyanimalEachmigrationmaycoverthousandsofmiles(kilometers)andtakeafewmonthsWhydowhalesmigrateMostlytofindfoodInthespring,migratingwhalesheadtothepolarregionsHerethesunshineshoursaday,andthecoldwatersbubblewithlifeThehungrywhalesfindplentytoeatTheygainalotofweightanddevelopathicklayerofblubberTheblubbergivesmigratingwhalesastorehouseoffoodBeforethepolarwatersfreezeover,migratingwhalesheadbacktowarmerwatersHerethewhalesmostlyrestPregnantcowsgivebirthtocalvesWhenthecalvesareafewmonthsold,itistimeforthewhalestoreturntothecold,foodrichwatersDomigratingwhalestravelaloneoringroupsSometravelaloneotherstravelingroups,calledpodsEachpodhasbetweenthreeandhundredsofwhalesDayandnightthepodswimsslowlythroughthewater,hardlyeverstoppingAlthoughthedistancesaregreat,thewhalessticktogetherIncaseoftrouble,theyhelpeachotherWhaleshavebeenknowntoliftawoundedcompanionwiththeirheadsBykeepinganinjuredwhale’sblowholeoutofthewater,theycansaveitfromdrowning!WhatdowhalesdrinkWhalescannotdrinkseawateranymorethanyoucanThat’sbecausewhales’bloodislesssaltythanseawaterIfawhaledrinksseawater,itstissuesgiveupwatertodilutethesaltAswatergetsdrawnoff,thewhalegetsverythirstyandmightdieExpertsthinkwhalesarelikecamelsTheygetallthewatertheyneedbyburningfatWhales’fattydietandstoresofblubbermakedrinkingwaterunnecessaryDowhalessleepNotthewayyoudoWhalesjustnaponthesurfaceforafewminutesatatimeThat’sbecausewhaleshavetothinkaboutbreathingIt’snotautomaticasitisinhumansAwhalesometimesappearstosleepButapartofitsbrainisalwaysawakeSomesaythebrainremainsawaketoremindthewhaletobreathe!ArewhalesdangerousNotusuallyWhalesareverygentlecreaturesButitcanbedangeroustofeed,pet,orteaseawhaleinthewildAnddon’tgetbetweenamotherwhaleandhercalf!WhalesrushtoattackiftheythinkacalfisintroubleWoundedwhalessometimescausetroubleTheymaycomeupbeneathasmallboatandtipitoverOrtheymayslapthewaterwiththeirflukes,sendinghugeamountsofwaterintoaboatHowlongdomostwhalesliveFromtoyearsThelargestwhalescanlivelongeruptoyearsButsadtosay,fewwhalesreacholdageLifeisdifficultinthewildSomewhalesarekilledbyotherwhalesothersstarvetodeathordieofdiseaseChemicalpollutionoftheoceanwatersandnoisepollutionshortenthelivesoffartoomanywhalesTOOTHEDWHALESDoallwhaleshaveteethNearlynineoutoftenkindsofwhalesdoTheyarecalledtoothedwhalesMosttoothedwhaleshavefromtomorethanteethatsometimeintheirlivesSometoothedwhaleshaveoverteeth!AlltoothedwhalesarethesameinanotherwayTheyhaveasingleblowholeTheotherwhaleshavedoubleblowholesDotoothedwhaleschewtheirfoodNoToothedwhalesusetheirteethforcatchingpreyortearingapartlargepiecesofpreyButtheirteetharenotforchewingTheyswallowtheirfoodwholeandoftenaliveYoungwhalesthathavenoteeth,orwhaleswithfewteeth,trappreyintheirjawsandsucktheminToothedwhalesfeedonmanykindsoffish,includingsquidSquidareusuallyaboutthesizeofacucumberButthegiantsquidcanbefeet(m)longabouthalfthelengthofabasketballcourt!HowbigarewhaleteethAslongasinches(cm)andcanweighmorethan⁄pound(kg)inmostwhales!That’slonger,andfarheavier,thanadinnerknifeImaginebrushingamouthfullofteethlikethattwiceaday!WhichisthelargestofthetoothedwhalesThespermwhaleThemaleisaboutfeet(m)longandweighstons(t)Itismuchlargerthanthefemale,whichisfeet(m)andtons(t)FromtoextremelylargeteethlinethelowerjawofanadultspermwhaleYoucantellaspermwhalebythehugesquareheadthatmakesupmorethanonethirdofitsbodyRemember,ifyouspotafloatingmountain,itmaybeaspermwhale!WhatdospermwhaleseatMostlysquidandfishthatliveatthebottomoftheseaTocatchthem,thespermwhaledivesstraightdownItsstreamlinedbodyslicesthroughthewaterlikeasleeksubmarineEachspermwhalenabsasmanysquidaspossibleOftenthelongbodied,wigglycreaturesfightbackThewhalemuststruggletoswallowthemScarsinsidethestomachsofspermwhalesshowthatthesquidkeeponbattlingevenwhenthechaseisoverHowlongcanaspermwhaleholditsbreathBetweenoneandtwohoursThattimespanislongerthanthatofmostotherkindsofwhalesAspermwhalecanalsodivedeeperthananyotherwhaleOnespermwhalewastrackeddown,feet(,m)That’salmost⁄miles(km),theheightoffiveEmpireStateBuildingsstackedontopofeachother!Whichistheworld’smostfamousspermwhaleMobyDickThebookbythatnamewaswrittenbyHermanMelvilleinIttellstheexcitingstoryofagreatwhitespermwhalethatCaptainAhablongstokillbecausethewhaleoncebitoffhislegThecaptainbattlesMobyDickbuteventuallyloseseverythingincludinghislifeWhydidwhalershuntthespermwhaleMostlyfortheoilinitsbodyThebulkofthiswhale’shugeheadisfilledwithtwokindsofoilspermoilandspermacetiPeopleburnedspermoilinlampsbeforetheinventionofelectriclightsAndworkersinfactoriesusedthisoiltogreasemachinesCandlemakersusedspermacetitomakecandlesWhalersalsoboileddownblubbertogetmoreoilWhichwhalehasthelongesttoothThemalenarwhalItsonetooth,ortusk,isuptofeet(m)longSharpandtwisted,thetuskjutsstraightoutofitsmouthItusedtoremindpeopleoftheunicorn,animaginaryhorselikeanimalwithonehornInfact,narwhaltuskswereoncesoldasunicornhorns!OfwhatuseisthetuskNooneknowsforsureNarwhalssometimesseemtousetheirtusksasspearsforcatchinglargefishOthertimes,theyseemtousetheirtusksasicepicksOrtheymayusethemastoolsfordiggingfish,squid,andshellfishoutofthemuddyoceanbottomManyscientistsnowthinkthetuskismainlyusedforfightingduringmatingseasonOnereasonisthatmanyadultmaleshavescarsontheirheadsAnotheristhatmanyoldmaleshavebrokentusksHowdidnarwhalsgettheirnameFromtheNorwegianwordnarhval,meaning“corpsewhale”NarwhalsreallydolookliketheyaredeadTheyaredullgrayincolor,havepuffy,swollenbodies,andoftenswimbellyupWherearenarwhalsfoundOnlyinArcticwatersNarwhalsliveindeepwaterclosetoiceTheyseemtofollowtheiceasitbreaksupanddriftsawayNarwhalsmovetowardshoreinsummerwhentheicestartstomeltTheymigrateinthefallwhentheicestartstobuildupSadtosay,manynarwhalsgettrappedbyfastformingice,anddieWhichwhaleiscalled“seacanary”ThebelugawhaleThebelugasometimessingsortrillslikeasongbirdwhenitcomesuptobreatheButunlikeanycanaryyoumayknow,italsowhistles,clicks,growls,andmoosInRussia,averyloudpersonissaidto“squeallikeabeluga”Thebelugahasaveryhigh,roundedforeheadcalledamelonThemelonhelpsthewhalesendandreceivesoundsButwhenitwantstobreakthroughiceitusesitsback,notitsmelonOuch!Whydoesthebelugasnapitsj

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