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首页 2008_Report_Revenue_Transparency_Oil_Gas_Compani…

2008_Report_Revenue_Transparency_Oil_Gas_Companies.pdf

2008_Report_Revenue_Transparenc…

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简介:本文档为《2008_Report_Revenue_Transparency_Oil_Gas_Companiespdf》,可适用于社会民生领域

ReportonRevenueTransparencyofOilandGasCompaniesInternationalSecreteriatAltMoabitBerlin,GermanyPhone:Fax:prttransparencyorgwwwtransparencyorgReportonRevenueTransparencyofOilandGasCompaniesPROMOTINGREVENUETRANSPARENCYPROMOTINGREVENUETRANSPARENCYCopyright©TransparencyInternationalAllrightsreservedThispublicationisincopyrightSubjecttostatutoryexceptionsnoreproductionofanypartmaytakeplacewithoutthewrittenpermissionofTransparencyInternationalSecretariatThePromotingRevenueTransparency(PRT)projectisrunbyTransparencyInternationalinpartnershipwiththeRevenueWatchInstitute,andwiththeparticipationandsupportofPublishWhatYouPay(PWYP)anditsmembers,includingCAFOD,CAREInternationalUK,andSecoursCatholiqueCaritasFrancePWYPisaglobalcivilsocietycoalitioncampaigningforrevenueandcontracttransparencyintheoil,gasandminingindustriesThecoalitionbelievesthattransparencyisanessentialconditionforalleviatingpoverty,promotingjustdevelopment,improvingcorporateaccountability,andreducingcorruptioninresourcerichdevelopingcountriesThefindingsofthisprojectserveasanimportantadvocacytoolforPWYPmembersintheireffortstopromotetransparencyasgoodcorporateandgovernmentpracticeworldwideThisreportrepresentsinitsentiretyanopinionformedbyTransparencyInternationalanditsprojectpartnersbasedontheresearchundertakeninaccordancewiththemethodologyassetoutinAnnexThereportisnotmeanttoassessorcommentonthecomplianceofcompaniesorgovernmentswithlegalrequirementsofanykind,norcanitbeinterpretedtomakesuchassessmentTransparencyInternationaldoesnotacceptresponsibilityfortheuseoftheinformationhereincontainedforotherpurposesorinothercontextsThePromotingRevenueTransparency(PRT)projectaimstoincreasetransparencyandaccountabilityinnaturalresourcemanagementItdoessobydevelopingrobustmeasuresoftransparencythatpromotegoodgovernance,improveawarenessingovernmentsandtheprivatesectorofhowtoaccomplishrevenuetransparencyandcontributestomultistakeholdereffortstoachieveimprovementinthisarenaThePRTprojectiscarriedoutbyTransparencyInternationalinpartnershipwiththeRevenueWatchInstituteThePRThasthreespecificobjectives:s฀O฀MEASURE฀REVENUE฀TRANSPARENCY฀PERFORMANCE฀AND฀DIAGNOSE฀AREAS฀FOR฀IMPROVEMENT�s฀O฀DEVELOP฀BROAD฀STANDARDS฀FOR฀REVENUE฀TRANSPARENCY�s฀O฀SUPPORT฀THE฀USE฀OF฀THE฀REVENUE฀TRANSPARENCY฀STANDARDS฀AND฀MEASURES฀OF฀PERFORMANCE฀BY฀COMPANIES�฀฀฀ratingagencies,investors,governmentregulators,andcivilsocietyForthispurpose,theprojectmeasuresandcomparesthedegreeofrevenuetransparencydemonstratedbyselectedcompanies,thecountrieswhereproductionistakingplaceandthecountrieswherecompaniesareregisteredorraisecapitalTheseassessmentswillresultinthreeseparatereportsontheoilandgassectors:theReportonRevenueTransparencyofOilandGasCompaniesisthefirsttobereleasedreportsonhostandhomegovernmentswillfollowAreportontheminingsectorisexpectedtobepublishedlaterTheprojecthasbeenguidedbythebeliefthatacollaborativeeffortisthebestapproachtocreatingeffectiveandsustainablechangeMultistakeholderengagementandconsultationarecriticaltothesuccessoftheprojectandthoseactivelyinvolvedinadvisingtheprojectincludeindustryexperts,companyrepresentatives,investors,internationalfinancialinstitutionsandcivilsocietyactivists–inadditiontomanyfromtheTransparencyInternationalnetworkInthiscontextcompanyinvolvementhasbeenofparticularrelevanceatallstagesoftheReportonRevenueTransparencyofOilandGasCompaniesThePromotingRevenueTransparencyprojectissupportedbytheRevenueWatchInstitute,theMinistryofForeignAffairsofFinland,CAFODandSecoursCatholiqueCaritasFranceReportonRevenueTransparencyofOilandGasCompaniesPROMOTINGREVENUETRANSPARENCYACKNOWLEDGEMENTSThisreporthasbeenwrittenbyTransparencyInternational’sPromotingRevenueTransparencyProjectWewouldliketothankalltheindividualswhocontributedtoallstagesoftheresearchandthepreparationofthereportOurgratitudegoestomanyTIcolleagueswhohaveinvestedtimeandeffortinthisendeavour,amongthemJermynBrooks,SusanCoteFreeman,CobusdeSwardt,AndréDoren,PascalFabie,GypsyGuillénKaiser,RobinHodess,CaseyKelso,ChristiaanPoortman,JuanitaRianoandFrankVoglalsotoTI’sIndexAdvisoryCommitteeandeverybodywhohasgivenfeedbackatdifferentstagesoftheprojectAboveall,ourthanksgotothemanyTIChapterswhohavedevotedtimeandenergytomultiplythisproject’simpactfromtheverybeginningAprofoundthankyoualsotoourdifferentprojectpartnersandparticularlytoTimBishop,PierreColmant,AnneLindsay,RadhikaSarin,ChristineSvarerandRachaelTaylorandalsoanumberofthePWYPcoalitionmemberswhohelpedoutalongthewayAspecialexpressionofgratitudegoestoallRevenueWatchInstitutestaffwithwhomwehaveworkedclosely,includingKarinLissakers,JulieMcCarthy,VanessaHerringshaw,YahiaSaid,IngridAndersonandMorganMandevilleWeareparticularlygratefultothemembers,participantsandoccasionalcontributorstotheProject’sWorkingGroupwhohelpedusbyprovidingguidancewithkeyaspectsoftheresearchdesignandimplementation,andthecraftingofthereportThisincluded,inadditiontotheprojectpartners:HumphreyAsobie,JohnCampbell,DanielGraymore,BethanyHipwell,KarinaLitvack,BenMellor,JonasMoberg,AkereMuna,WillyOlsen,HenryParham,FranciscoParis,andAnwarRavatOurgreatappreciationgoestoUmairUllahandtheteamfromemeConsultantswhogatheredandanalysedthedataWealsowanttospeciallythankanumberofexpertswhocontributedtheirviewsatdifferentstages:JeremyBaskin,ScottBrown,AlanDetheridge,ThomasHeller,GavinHayman,ChristineJojarth,GladaLahn,JohannGrafLambsdorff,JohnMitchell,KeithMyers,WillyOlsen,AntonOpdeBeke,MarkStephens,JonathanWarren,ReinhildeWeindacherfromEthixSRIandRichardWinfieldOurthankstoMarkusPlesserforhislegaladviceatthebeginningoftheprojectToLindaStarkeandDeborahUngerourgratitudeforprofessionaleditorialservicesandtoTanjaLemkeMahdaviforthereport’sdesignandlayoutTotheProjectteam,aheartythanksfortheirdedication,enduranceandgoodwork:SophieBuxtonandAlesiaKachurasAssistantProjectCoordinatorsandYolandaFernandezastheproject’sinternWealsowishtothanktheProject’sfinancialsponsors:theRevenueWatchInstitute,theMinistryofForeignAffairsofFinland,CAFOD,SecoursCatholiqueCaritasFranceandSavetheChildrenUKFinallyaprofoundthankyoutoVanessaHerringshawwhoinstigatedtheproductionoftheBeyondtheRhetoricforSavetheChildrenUKandcontributedtothisreportwithknowledge,heartandconvictionandtoTerrenceFreitasandRobertoCobaríafortheirinspirationJuanitaOlayaPromotingRevenueTransparencyProjectProgrammeManagerJermynBrooksinhiscapacityasTIcolleagueandmemberoftheWorkingGroupTABLEOFCONTENTSLISTOFTABLESANDGRAPHSABBREVIATIONSANDACRONYMSGLOSSARYEXECUTIVESUMMARYINTRODUCTIONReversingtheresourcecurse:thevitalroleoftransparencyWhyfocusoncompanydisclosureMETHODOLOGYRESULTSInternationalOilCompanies(IOCs):proactivedisclosuredrivesgoodperformanceIOCreportingisstrongonanticorruptionprogrammesbutweakonpaymentstohostgovernmentsHowIOCsimplementtransparency:moredisclosureofpoliciesandmanagementsystemsthanofperformanceNationalOilCompanies(NOCs)operatingathome:listingrequirementsdrivedisclosureNOCsreportmostonoperations,regulationandprocurementissues,lessonpaymentstogovernmentsNOCsdiscloserevenuetransparencyperformanceIOCandNOCtrendsCompanyactionsmattermorethanlocalconditions:incountryanalysisThe‘EITIeffect’remainslimitedbutholdspromiseThequalityofaccesstoinformation:disclosureandreportingformatsKEYFINDINGSRECOMMENDATIONSCONCLUSIONANNEXESCompanyandcountryselectioncriteriaDetailedMethodologyResearchProcess:aparticipatory,multistakeholderapproachQuestionnaireDataandDataAnnotationsSourcesofcompanyinformationExamplesofreportingformatsComparisonwithSavetheChildrenCompaniesReportDatareviewprotocolReportonRevenueTransparencyofOilandGasCompaniesABBREVIATIONSANDACRONYMSCSRCorporateSocialResponsibilityEITIExtractiveIndustriesTransparencyInitiativeFASBFinancialAccountingStandardsBoard(USA)GGroupofEightleadingindustrialcountries:Canada,France,Germany,Italy,Japan,RussianFederation,theUnitedKingdomandtheUnitedStatesTableOverallcompanyresults–RevenuetransparencybygroupingpageTableIOCsandNOCsoperatingoutsidetheirhometerritories–Disclosureofpayments,operationsandanticorruptionprogrammesbygroupingpageTableNOCsoperatingathome–Disclosureofpayments,operations,anticorruptionprogrammesandregulationandprocurementissuesbygroupingpageTableIOCsandNOCsoperatingoutsidetheirterritories–PerformancebycountryofoperationpageGraphIOCsandNOCsoperatingoutsidetheirhometerritories–Averagedisclosureofpayments,operationsandanticorruptionprogrammespageGraphIOCsandNOCsoperatingoutsidetheirhometerritories–Averagedisclosureofpolicy,managementsystemsandperformancepageGraphIOCsandNOCsoperatingoutsidetheirhometerritories–Disclosureofrevenuetransparencypolicy,managementsystemsandperformancebygroupingpageGraphListedandNonlistedNOCsoperatingathome–Averagedisclosureofregulatoryandprocurementissues,payments,operationsandanticorruptionprogrammespageGraphNOCsoperatingathome–Averagedisclosureofregulatoryandprocurementissues,payments,operationsandanticorruptionprogrammespageGraphNOCsoperatingathome–Averagedisclosureofregulatoryandprocurementissues,payments,operationsandanticorruptionprogrammesbygroupingpageGraphNOCsoperatingathome–Averagedisclosureofrevenuetransparencypolicy,managementsystemsandperformancepageGraphNOCsoperatingathome–Disclosureofrevenuetransparencypolicy,managementsystemsandperformancebygroupingpageGraphComparingIOCandNOCresults–Disclosureofpaymentstohostgovernments,operationsandanticorruptionprogrammespageGAAPGenerallyAcceptedAccountingPrinciplesGDPGrossDomesticProductGRIGlobalReportingInitiativeIASBInternationalAccountingStandardsBoardIFRSInternationalFinancialReportingStandardsIMFInternationalMonetaryFundIOCInternationalOilCompanyMDGMillenniumDevelopmentGoalsNOCNationalOilCompanyLISTOFTABLESANDGRAPHSOECDOrganisationforEconomicCooperationandDevelopmentPRTTransparencyInternational’sPromotingRevenueTransparencyProjectPWYPPublishWhatYouPayCoalitionRWIRevenueWatchInstituteTITransparencyInternationalGraphComparingIOCandNOCresults–Disclosureofrevenuetransparencyperformance,managementsystemsandpolicypageGraphTheEITIEffect–CompanydisclosureresultsforEITIandnonEITIsupporterspageReportonRevenueTransparencyofOilandGasCompaniesGLOSSARYHomegovernments:HomegovernmentsrefertothegovernmentsofthosecountrieswherecompaniesareregisteredorraisecapitalHostgovernments:Hostgovernmentsrefertothegovernmentsofthosecountrieswhereoilandgasextractiontakesplace:thecountriesofoperationforoilandgascompaniesMateriality:Whenreferredtocountries,PDWHULDOLW�VLJQL¿HV�KRZ�relevantintermsofproductionvolumesorrevenueaparticularcountryisforacompanyUR¿W�RLO��$�VSHFL¿F�LQGXVWU�WHUP�WKDW�referstoatypeofrevenueparticulartoproductionsharingcontractsThiscorrespondstoaproportionofproduction,netofcostsandexpenses,whichisassignedtotheparticipatingpartiesintheDJUHHPHQW�DV�LQ�NLQG�SUR¿W��Rentseeking:Interestedpartiestryingtopersuadethegovernmentandorprivatesectortoapplypoliciesfavouringtheirprivate�XVXDOO�¿QDQFLDO��LQWHUHVWV��ratherthanthepublicgoodResourcecurse:ReferstothesituationincertaincountrieswherethegreatwealthgeneratedbyextractiveindustrieshasoftenunderminedeconomicgrowthandsocialdevelopmentratherthansupportitRevenueTransparency:Referstothedisclosureof¿QDQFLDO�LQIRUPDWLRQ�UHJDUGLQJ�howmuchmoneygovernmentsarereceivingfromextractiveindustryrevenues,whetherintheformofproductionentitlements,royaltypayments,taxes,bonusesorfeesInthecontextofthisreport,revenuetransparencyreferstothreeareasofcompanyactionthatcancontributetoimprovedaccountabilityforextractiverevenues:)Publicdisclosureofpaymentstohostgovern�PHQWV��H�J��WDHV��SUR¿W�RLO���onacountrybycountrybasis)Publicdisclosureofother�¿QDQFLDO�LQIRUPDWLRQ����pertainingtooperations,alsoonacountrybycountrybasis,thatassistsinjudgingthescaleofactivitiesandaccuracyofpaymentreporting,egproduction,costsand)Publicreportingofanticorruptionprogrammesincludingtheexistenceofanticorruptionprovisions,codesofconductandtheirapplicability,whistleblowingprocedures,andreportingoncensuringmalpracticeUpstreamoperations:Upstreamoperationsfortheoilandgasindustryincludeexploration,developmentandproductionuptothestagewheretheproductismarketableForthepurposesofthisreportandforreasonsofconsistency,wehaveonlyincludedcompanies’operationsthatareatthestageofproductionsincecertaininformationforearlierstagessuchasproductionvolumesorcostsisnotyetavailableReportonRevenueTransparencyofOilandGasCompaniesReportonRevenueTransparencyofOilandGasCompaniesEXECUTIVESUMMARYInthisreport,TransparencyInternational(TI)evaluatesleadingoilandgascompaniesontheircurrentpolicies,managementsystemsandperformanceinareasrelevanttorevenuetransparencyintheirupstreamoperationsRevenuetransparencyinthisreportincludesthreeareasofcorporateactionwheredisclosurecancontributetoimprovedaccountabilityinthemanagementofextractiverevenues:paymentstohostgovernments,operationsandcorporateanticorruptionprogrammesThecompaniesareevaluatedinatotalofcountriesofoperationThisreportisafeaturedproductofTI’sPromotingRevenueTransparencyProjectandattemptstocharacterisecurrentlevelsofcompanyrevenuetransparency,topointtobestpractices,andtosuggestareasforimprovementThekeyfindingoftheReportonRevenueTransparencyofOilandGasCompaniesisthatmostcompaniesevaluateddonotsufficientlyreportontheirpaymentstogovernmentswheretheyoperateAlimitednumberofcompaniesdoreportthesepayments,therebydemonstratingthatsuchdisclosureispossibleTheoriginsforthisreportlieintheglobalmovementtocombatthe‘resourcecurse’Oilandgasresourcesgenerategreatwealth,butifpoorlymanagedextractiverevenuescanalsoundermineeconomicgrowth,createincentivesforrentseekingactivity,heightencorruptioninthepublicandprivatesectors,andmayevenfuelconflictTheresultingpoverty,instabilityandweakenedruleoflawarenotonlybadforlocalpeople,theycanalsodamagecompanyreputationsandgeneratelowerreturnstoinvestorsThequalityofgovernanceofresourcesisthekeytotransformingthiscurseintoablessingAvitalapproachliesinstrengtheningtheaccountabilityofdecisionmakersthatcontroltheextractiveresourcesandrevenuesButsuchaccountabilityisnotpossiblewithoutadequateinformationabouttheresourcesbeingextracted,therevenuesgenerated,andwheretheyflowItisnecessarythatthisinformationbeprovidedbybothcompaniesandgovernmentstoallowcrossverificationUltimately,revenuetransparencyisanecessarysteptobetterandmoreequitabledevelopmentoutcomesaswellasmoresustainableeconomicgrowthandmorepredictablereturnsforcompaniesItcancontributetomakingnaturalresourcewealthworkforeveryone,especiallythepoor,whohavethusfarseenlittlebenefitfromtheenormouswealthgeneratedinthesectorinmanycountriesaroundtheworldAlthoughtherevenuereportingpracticesofoilandgascompaniesarethereport’sprimaryfocus,TIisawarethatcompaniesactinacomplexregulatoryenvironmentthatrequiressupportiveparticipationofgovernmentsintheprocessWhenitcomestorevenuetransparencytheresponsibilityisshared,andtheresponsibilityofhostgovernmentsinensuringrevenuetransparencyintheirterritoriesshouldneverbeoverlookedIndeed,thethrustofrevenuetransparencyisonmakinghostcountriesaccountablefortheirnaturalresourcesincomeThecontextinwhichthesecompaniesoperate,includingboththeirhostandhomecountries,playsakeyroleindeterminingmuchofthescopeofwhatcompaniescandoAsaresult,themethodologyhasbeendesignedtofocusonthecompanies’role,butnottoholdthemaccountableandresponsibleforhostorhomegovernmentresponsibilitiesThereportfindingsshowdifferencesbetweenhigh,middleandlowperformingcompaniesThisinformationcouldbeusefultoencouragecompaniestoexertpeerpressureontheircompetitorstosetacommonhighstandardand,thereby,createamorelevelplayingfieldWorkingtoachievesuchastandardisanimperativeItistheaimofthePromotingRevenueTransparencyProjectandthisReportonRevenueTransparencyofOilandGasCompaniestoprovidesolidinformationtothemultistakeholdermovement–includingcompanies,investors,governmentsandcivilsocietyadvocatingforgreatertransparency

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