加入VIP
  • 专属下载特权
  • 现金文档折扣购买
  • VIP免费专区
  • 千万文档免费下载

上传资料

关闭

关闭

关闭

封号提示

内容

首页 140. Crusades

140. Crusades.pdf

140. Crusades

淡了
2010-10-29 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《140. Crusadespdf》,可适用于高等教育领域

TheCrusades:AVeryShortIntroductionVeryShortIntroductionsareforanyonewantingastimulatingandaccessiblewayintoanewsubjectTheyarewrittenbyexperts,andhavebeenpublishedinmorethanlanguagesworldwideTheseriesbeganin,andnowrepresentsawidevarietyoftopicsinhistory,philosophy,religion,science,andthehumanitiesOverthenextfewyearsitwillgrowtoalibraryofaroundvolumes–aVeryShortIntroductiontoeverythingfromancientEgyptandIndianphilosophytoconceptualartandcosmologyVeryShortIntroductionsavailablenow:ANARCHISMColinWardANCIENTEGYPTIanShawANCIENTPHILOSOPHYJuliaAnnasANCIENTWARFAREHarrySidebottomTHEANGLOSAXONAGEJohnBlairANIMALRIGHTSDavidDeGraziaARCHAEOLOGYPaulBahnARCHITECTUREAndrewBallantyneARISTOTLEJonathanBarnesARTHISTORYDanaArnoldARTTHEORYCynthiaFreelandTHEHISTORYOFASTRONOMYMichaelHoskinAtheismJulianBagginiAugustineHenryChadwickBARTHESJonathanCullerTHEBIBLEJohnRichesBRITISHPOLITICSAnthonyWrightBuddhaMichaelCarrithersBUDDHISMDamienKeownBUDDHISTETHICSDamienKeownCAPITALISMJamesFulcherTHECELTSBarryCunliffeCHOICETHEORYMichaelAllinghamCHRISTIANARTBethWilliamsonCHRISTIANITYLindaWoodheadCLASSICSMaryBeardandJohnHendersonCLAUSEWITZMichaelHowardTHECOLDWARRobertMcMahonCONSCIOUSNESSSusanBlackmoreContinentalPhilosophySimonCritchleyCOSMOLOGYPeterColesTHECRUSADESChristopherTyermanCRYPTOGRAPHYFredPiperandSeanMurphyDADAANDSURREALISMDavidHopkinsDarwinJonathanHowardDemocracyBernardCrickDESCARTESTomSorellDESIGNJohnHeskettDINOSAURSDavidNormanDREAMINGJAllanHobsonDRUGSLeslieIversenTHEEARTHMartinRedfernEGYPTIANMYTHGeraldinePinchEIGHTEENTHCENTURYBRITAINPaulLangfordTHEELEMENTSPhilipBallEMOTIONDylanEvansEMPIREStephenHoweENGELSTerrellCarverEthicsSimonBlackburnTheEuropeanUnionJohnPinderEVOLUTIONBrianandDeborahCharlesworthFASCISMKevinPassmoreFEMINISMMargaretWaltersFOSSILSKeithThomsonFOUCAULTGaryGuttingTHEFRENCHREVOLUTIONWilliamDoyleFREEWILLThomasPinkFreudAnthonyStorrGalileoStillmanDrakeGandhiBhikhuParekhGLOBALIZATIONManfredStegerGLOBALWARMINGMarkMaslinHABERMASJamesGordonFinlaysonHEGELPeterSingerHEIDEGGERMichaelInwoodHIEROGLYPHSPenelopeWilsonHINDUISMKimKnottHISTORYJohnHArnoldHOBBESRichardTuckHUMEAJAyerIDEOLOGYMichaelFreedenIndianPhilosophySueHamiltonIntelligenceIanJDearyISLAMMaliseRuthvenJOURNALISMIanHargreavesJUDAISMNormanSolomonJungAnthonyStevensKAFKARitchieRobertsonKANTRogerScrutonKIERKEGAARDPatrickGardinerTHEKORANMichaelCookLINGUISTICSPeterMatthewsLITERARYTHEORYJonathanCullerLOCKEJohnDunnLOGICGrahamPriestMACHIAVELLIQuentinSkinnerTHEMARQUISDESADEJohnPhillipsMARXPeterSingerMATHEMATICSTimothyGowersMEDICALETHICSTonyHopeMEDIEVALBRITAINJohnGillinghamandRalphAGriffithsMODERNARTDavidCottingtonMODERNIRELANDSeniaPasˇetaMOLECULESPhilipBallMUSICNicholasCookMythRobertASegalNATIONALISMStevenGrosbyNIETZSCHEMichaelTannerNINETEENTHCENTURYBRITAINChristopherHarvieandHCGMatthewNORTHERNIRELANDMarcMulhollandPARTICLEPHYSICSFrankClosepaulEPSandersPhilosophyEdwardCraigPHILOSOPHYOFSCIENCESamirOkashaPLATOJuliaAnnasPOLITICSKennethMinoguePOLITICALPHILOSOPHYDavidMillerPOSTCOLONIALISMRobertYoungPOSTMODERNISMChristopherButlerPOSTSTRUCTURALISMCatherineBelseyPREHISTORYChrisGosdenPRESOCRATICPHILOSOPHYCatherineOsbornePsychologyGillianButlerandFredaMcManusQUANTUMTHEORYJohnPolkinghorneRENAISSANCEARTGeraldineAJohnsonROMANBRITAINPeterSalwayROUSSEAURobertWoklerRUSSELLACGraylingRUSSIANLITERATURECatrionaKellyTHERUSSIANREVOLUTIONSASmithSCHIZOPHRENIAChrisFrithandEveJohnstoneSCHOPENHAUERChristopherJanawaySHAKESPEAREGermaineGreerSIKHISMEleanorNesbittSOCIALANDCULTURALANTHROPOLOGYJohnMonaghanandPeterJustSOCIALISMMichaelNewmanSOCIOLOGYSteveBruceSocratesCCWTaylorTHESPANISHCIVILWARHelenGrahamSPINOZARogerScrutonSTUARTBRITAINJohnMorrillTERRORISMCharlesTownshendTHEOLOGYDavidFFordTHEHISTORYOFTIMELeofrancHolfordStrevensTRAGEDYAdrianPooleTHETUDORSJohnGuyTWENTIETHCENTURYBRITAINKennethOMorganTHEVIKINGSJulianRichardsWittgensteinACGraylingWORLDMUSICPhilipBohlmanTHEWORLDTRADEORGANIZATIONAmritaNarlikarAvailablesoon:AFRICANHISTORYJohnParkerandRichardRathboneANGLICANISMMarkChapmanTHEBRAINMichaelO’SheaCHAOSLeonardSmithCITIZENSHIPRichardBellamyCONTEMPORARYARTJulianStallabrassTHEDEADSEASCROLLSTimothyLimDerridaSimonGlendinningECONOMICSParthaDasguptaTHEENDOFTHEWORLDBillMcGuireEXISTENTIALISMThomasFlynnTHEFIRSTWORLDWARMichaelHowardFUNDAMENTALISMMaliseRuthvenHIVAIDSAlanWhitesideINTERNATIONALRELATIONSPaulWilkinsonJAZZBrianMortonMANDELATomLodgeTHEMINDMartinDaviesPERCEPTIONRichardGregoryPHILOSOPHYOFLAWRaymondWacksPHILOSOPHYOFRELIGIONJackCopelandandDianeProudfootPHOTOGRAPHYSteveEdwardsPSYCHIATRYTomBurnsRACISMAliRattansiTHERAJDenisJuddTHERENAISSANCEJerryBrottonTHEROMANEMPIREChristopherKellyROMANTICISMDuncanWuFormoreinformationvisitourwebsitewwwoupcoukvsiChristopherTyermanTHECRUSADESAVeryShortIntroductionGreatClarendonStreet,OxfordoxdpOxfordUniversityPressisadepartmentoftheUniversityofOxfordItfurtherstheUniversity’sobjectiveofexcellenceinresearch,scholarship,andeducationbypublishingworldwideinOxfordNewYorkAucklandCapeTownDaresSalaamHongKongKarachiKualaLumpurMadridMelbourneMexicoCityNairobiNewDelhiShanghaiTaipeiTorontoWithofficesinArgentinaAustriaBrazilChileCzechRepublicFranceGreeceGuatemalaHungaryItalyJapanPolandPortugalSingaporeSouthKoreaSwitzerlandThailandTurkeyUkraineVietnamOxfordisaregisteredtrademarkofOxfordUniversityPressintheUKandincertainothercountriesPublishedintheUnitedStatesbyOxfordUniversityPressInc,NewYork©ChristopherTyermanThemoralrightsoftheauthorhavebeenassertedDatabaserightOxfordUniversityPress(maker)FirstpublishedasFightingforChristendomFirstpublishedasaVeryShortIntroductionAllrightsreservedNopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,storedinaretrievalsystem,ortransmitted,inanyformorbyanymeans,withoutthepriorpermissioninwritingofOxfordUniversityPress,orasexpresslypermittedbylaw,orundertermsagreedwiththeappropriatereprographicsrightsorganizationsEnquiriesconcerningreproductionoutsidethescopeoftheaboveshouldbesenttotheRightsDepartment,OxfordUniversityPress,attheaddressaboveYoumustnotcirculatethisbookinanyotherbindingorcoverandyoumustimposethissameconditiononanyacquirerBritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationDataDataavailableLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataDataavailableISBN–––––––TypesetbyRefineCatchLtd,Bungay,SuffolkPrintedinGreatBritainbyTJInternationalLtd,Padstow,CornwallForPPABThispageintentionallyleftblankContentsPrefacexiListofmapsxiiiListofillustrationsxivIntroductionDefinitionCrusadesintheeasternMediterraneanCrusadesinthewestTheimpactoftheCrusadesHolywarThebusinessofthecrossHolylandsConclusionFurtherreadingChronologyIndexThispageintentionallyleftblankPrefaceWhilethethcenturyScottishphilosopherandhistorianDavidHumethoughttheCrusades‘themostsignalandmostdurablemonumentofhumanfollythathasyetappearedinanyageornation’,headmittedthey‘engrossedtheattentionofEuropeandhaveeversinceengrossedthecuriosityofmankind’ThereasonsforthisarenothardtofindThetwinthemesofjudgementonpastviolenceandfascinationwithitscauseshaveensuredthesurvivaloftheCrusadesasmorethananinertsubjectforantiquariansSincePopeUrbanII(–)inansweredacallformilitaryhelpfromtheByzantineemperorAlexiusIComnenus(–),bysummoningavastarmytofightinthenameofGodtoliberateeasternChristianityandrecovertheHolyCityofJerusalem,therehavebeenfewperiodswhentheconsequencesofthisacthavenotgrippedmindsandimaginations,primarilyinwesternsocietybutincreasingly,sincethethcentury,amongcommunitiesthathaveseenthemselvesasheirstothevictimsofthisformofreligiousviolenceWiththehistoryoftheCrusades,moderninterestiscompoundedbyspurioustopicalityandinescapablefamiliarityIdeologicalwarfareandthepathologyofacceptablecommunalviolenceareembeddedinthehistoricalexperienceofcivilizationJustificationforwarandkillingforanoblecauseneverceasetofindmodernmanifestationsTheCrusadespresentaphenomenonsodramaticandextremeinaspirationandexecutionandyetsorebarbativetomodernsensibilities,thattheycannotfailtomovebothasastoryandasanexpressionofasocietyremoteintimeandattitudesyetapparentlysoabundantlyrecognizableSpreadoverfivehundredyearsandacrossthreecontinents,theCrusadesmaynothavedefinedmedievalChristianEurope,yettheyprovideamostextraordinaryfeaturethatretainsthepowertoexcite,appal,anddisturbTheyremainoneofthegreatsubjectsofEuropeanhistoryWhatfollowsisanattempttoexplainwhyThephenomenonofviolencejustifiedbyreligiousfaithhasebbedandflowed,sometimesnearingthecentre,sometimesretreatingtothemarginsofhistoricalandcontemporaryconsciousnessWhenIwasaskedtowritethisshortintroductiontotheCrusades,holywar,Christianorotherwise,wasnothighonthepublicorpoliticalagendaNowwhenIhavefinished,itisSothisworkconformstoapatterntracedinwhatfollows,ofhistoricalstudyrelatingtocurrenteventsMyviewsonthatrelationshipwill,Ihope,becomeclearenoughWhatremainhiddenexcepttothelynxeyedarethedebtstomanyotherscholars,colleagues,andfriendsfromwhomIhavelearntsomuchandshouldhaverememberedsomuchmoreTheymustforgiveacollectivethanksThefaultsinthislibellusareminenottheirsThededicationisaverysmallrecompenseforincalculablemunificenceofadvice,support,andfriendshipoversomanyyears,indarkdaysaswellasbrighteveningsofexhaustingbutinexhaustiblehospitalityCJTOxfordMayListofmapsAMedievalEuropeanditsfrontiersBEuropeandtheMediterranean:ChristianityanditsnonChristianneighboursCTheNearEastinthethcenturyDTheCrusaderstatesofOutremerETheSpanishReconquistaFTheBalticGTheAegeaninthethandthcenturiesHThecastlesofOutremerListofillustrationsRichardIascrusaderIllustrationbyJohnKenneyfromRichardtheLionheartbyLduGardePeach©LadybirdBooksLtd,,reproducedbypermissionofLadybirdBooksLtdSaladinandRichardIIllustrationbyJohnKenneyfromRichardtheLionheartbyLduGardePeach©LadybirdBooksLtd,,reproducedbypermissionofLadybirdBooksLtdPresidentAssad’sSaladin,Damascus©BennoGrazianiPhotocomRichardIandJerusalem,©PunchLtdUrbanIIinBibliothèquenationaledeFrance,Paris(MSLatfolrecto)Photo:©BibliothèquenationaledeFranceFifteenthcenturydrawingoftheEdiculeoftheHolySepulchreBadischeLandesbibliothek,Karlsruhe(StPeterpap,folverso)Photo:©BadischeLandesbibliothekPilgrimreturningfromJerusalem–PMichel,LesFresquesdeTravant(Paris)BypermissionoftheBritishLibrary(LRn,plXIX)ThelossoftherelicoftheTrueCrossatthebattleofHattin,CorpusChristiCollege,Cambridge(MS,p)BypermissionoftheMasterandFellowsofCorpusChristiCollegeFrederickBarbarossaascrusaderBibliotecaApostolicaVaticana(MSVatLatfolrecto)Photo:BibliotecaApostolicaVaticanaTwelfthcenturyplanoftheChurchoftheHolySepulchreÖsterreichischeNationalbibliothek,Vienna(NB)Photo:©ÖsterreichischeNationalbibliothekMuslimChristianwarfareinSpain–CandigasdeSantaMaria,MonasteryofEscurial,MadridInstitutAmatllerd’ArtHispanic,BarcelonaPhoto:©ArxiuMasAmedievalworldmapBypermissionoftheBritishLibrary(MSRoyCIXfol)MamluksatmilitaryexercisesBypermissionoftheBritishLibrary(AddMS,fol)ThirteenthcenturyEnglishcrusaderknightBypermissionoftheBritishLibrary(MSRoyalAXXII,fol)BernardofClairvauxatVézelay–byESignol,MuséenationalduChâteaudeVersailles,FrancePhoto:©ARJPhotocomEmbarkingonCrusadeBibliothèquenationaledeFrance,Paris(MSfr,fol)Photo:©BibliothèquenationaledeFranceCracdesChevaliers©JaneTaylorSoniaHallidayPhotographsJerusalemKoninklijkeBibliotheek,TheHague(MSFfolIrecto)Photo:©KoninklijkeBibliotheekSaintJamesfightingtheMoors,attribCircleofJuandeFlandesMuseoLázaroGaldiano,MadridPhoto:©MuseoLázaroGaldianoLouisIXatDamiettaBibliothèquenationaledeFrance,Paris(MSfr,fol)Photo:©BibliothèquenationaledeFranceCook’sCrusader©PunchLtdSaladinandSaddamHussein–Iraqipropaganda,s©SipaPressRexFeaturesThepublisherandtheauthorapologizeforanyerrorsoromissionsintheabovelistIfcontactedtheywillbepleasedtorectifytheseattheearliestopportunityThispageintentionallyleftblankIntroductionBetweenand,acosmopolitanarmyofwesterninvadersbesiegedthePalestiniancoastalcityofAcre,modernAkkoTheircampresembledthetrenchesoftheWesternFrontduringtheFirstWorldWar,fetid,diseaseridden,anddangerousOnestorycirculatedtoboostmoraleconcernedtheheroicdeathinbattleafewyearsearlierofaknightfromTouraineinFrance,JakelindeMaillyAmemberoftheMilitaryOrderofKnightsTemplar,asoldierwhohadtakenreligiousvowsofpoverty,chastity,andobedienceinordertodevotehislifetoprotectingChristiansandtheirconquestsinSyriaandPalestine,JakelinhadbeenkilledfightingaMuslimraidingpartyinGalileeonMayIndescribingwhatprovedtobeamassacreoftheChristians,thestoryhadJakelinfightingonalone,hopelesslyoutnumberedandsurroundedThechroniclerwhorecordedthestorybefore,possiblyanEnglishmanandcertainlyaveteranofthesiegeofAcre,isworthquotinginfull:HewasnotafraidtodieforChristAtlonglast,crushedratherthanconqueredbyspears,stonesandlances,hesanktothegroundandjoyfullypassedtoheavenwiththemartyr’scrown,triumphantItwasindeedagentledeathwithnoplaceforsorrow,whenoneman’sswordhadconstructedsuchagreatcrownforhimselffromthecrowdlaidallaroundhimDeathissweetwhenthevictorliesencircledbytheimpiouspeoplehehasslainwithhisvictoriousrighthandTheplacewherehefoughtwascoveredwiththestubblewhichthereapershadleftstandingwhentheyhadcutthegrainshortlybeforeSuchagreatnumberofTurkshadrushedintoattack,andthisonemanhadfoughtforsolongagainstsomanybattalions,thatthefieldinwhichtheystoodwascompletelyreducedtodustandtherewasnotatraceofthecroptobeseenItissaidthatthereweresomewhosprinkledthebodyofthedeadmanwithdustandplaceddustontheirheads,believingthattheywoulddrawcouragefromthecontactInfact,rumourhasitthatonepersonwasmovedwithmorefervourthantherestHecutofftheman’sgenitals,andkeptthemsafeforbegettingchildrensothatevenwhendeadtheman’smembers–ifsuchathingwerepossible–wouldproduceanheirwithcourageasgreatashisExceptpossiblyforthesuggestionofsexualfetishism,thisstory,whichwouldnothaveconvincedallwhohearditbyanymeans,representedastandardpieceofcrusadepropagandaCrusading,fightingforGodinreturnforapromiseofsalvation,placedapremiumoncourage,physicalprowess,martialskill,andreligiousconvictionAssuch,littleseparateditfromotherformsoforganizedviolenceYetthetaleofJakelindeMaillyemphasizedcertainfeaturesparticularlycharacteristicoftheCrusades,especiallythebelieforassertionthatviolenceforthefaithwillearnheavenlyrewardThekiller,alreadyaprofessedreligious,becomesaholyman,amartyr,awitnessforhisGodSuchisthehero’sspiritualpotencythathisphysicalremainsretainapowerfulmaterialchargetoconferhishumanqualitiestoothers,evenposthumouslythroughhissexualorgansHishorrible,violentdeathwasinterpretedas‘gentle’and‘sweet’hismemoryprovidedinspirationhisremainswerethoughttoconveyvirtueDeathwasacompletionbutnoconclusionOnthefaceofit,fewmentalities–enthusiasticforviolence,fixedonanafterlife–couldbelessaccessibletomodernobserversinthewesternculturaltraditionthanthisYetnoaspectofChristianmedievalhistoryenjoysclearermodernrecognitionthantheCrusades,norhasbeenmoresubjecttoegregiousdistortionMostTheCrusadesofwhatpassesinpublicasknowledgeoftheCrusadesiseithermisleadingorfalseTheCrusadeswerenotsolelywarsagainstIslaminPalestineTheywerenotchieflyconductedbylandhungryyoungersons,norweretheypartofsomeearlyattempttoimposewesterneconomichegemonyontheworldMorefundamentally,theydidnotrepresentanaberrationfromChristianteachingNonetheless,interestandinventionexistastwosidesofthesamehistoricalcoinThatinpartexplainswhytheworldofJakelindeMaillyandhiseulogisthasnotbeenconsignedtothesameobscurityasthatofmedievalscholasticsorflagellantsthatandthedramaoftheeventsthemselvesJakelin’sdeathinadesperateandfoolhardyskirmishintheGalileanhillsmayarouseonlymodestinterestButhispresencetwothousandmilesfromhishomelandthecauseforwhichhesworereligiousvows,fought,anddiedtheregionforwhichhebattledandthememorablehistoricalfiguresdrawnintotheconflictinwhichheservedhaveensuredhisendeavourandsacrificecanstilltouchanerveThatistheexcuseforthisbookTheword‘crusade’,anonmedievalFrancoSpanishhybridonlypopularizedinEnglishsincethethcentury,hasenteredtheAngloAmericanlanguageasasynonymforagoodcausevigorouslypursued,frompacificChristianevangelismtomilitanttemperanceHoweverfloridlyandmisleadinglyromantic,theimageofmailedknightsbearingcrossesonsurcoatsandbanners,fightingfortheirfaithunderanaliensun,occupiesafamiliarnicheinthefaçadeofmodernwesternperceptionsofthepastDespite,orperhapsbecauseof,itslackofcontext,itremainstheindelibleimageofcrusadinginpopularculture,sharedevenbythesculptorsofthelatePresidentAssadofSyriaIconographyisneverinnocentAssad’sDamascusSaladinisdefeatingtheChristiansattheirownimperialistgameassurelyastheLad

用户评价(0)

关闭

新课改视野下建构高中语文教学实验成果报告(32KB)

抱歉,积分不足下载失败,请稍后再试!

提示

试读已结束,如需要继续阅读或者下载,敬请购买!

文档小程序码

使用微信“扫一扫”扫码寻找文档

1

打开微信

2

扫描小程序码

3

发布寻找信息

4

等待寻找结果

我知道了
评分:

/36

140. Crusades

仅供在线阅读

VIP

在线
客服

免费
邮箱

爱问共享资料服务号

扫描关注领取更多福利