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首页 冷战史教程

冷战史教程.pdf

冷战史教程

飞鸿踏雪
2010-10-20 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《冷战史教程pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

ProfessorDavidSPainterGEORGETOWNUNIVERSITYCOLDWAR:ONTHEBRINKOFAPOCALYPSECOURSEGUIDEColdWar:OntheBrinkofApocalypseProfessorDavidSPainterGeorgetownUniversityRecordedBooks™isatrademarkofRecordedBooks,LLCAllrightsreservedColdWar:OntheBrinkofApocalypseProfessorDavidSPainter�ExecutiveProducerJohnJAlexanderExecutiveEditorDonnaFCarnahanRECORDINGProducerDavidMarkowitzDirectorMatthewCavnarCOURSEGUIDEEditorJamesGallagherContributingEditorKarenSparroughDesignEdwardWhiteLecturecontent©byDavidSPainterCourseguide©byRecordedBooks,LLCbyRecordedBooks,LLCCoverimage:©Clipartcom#UTISBN:AllbeliefsandopinionsexpressedinthisaudiovideoprogramandaccompanyingcourseguidearethoseoftheauthorandnotofRecordedBooks,LLC,oritsemployeesCourseSyllabusColdWar:OntheBrinkofApocalypseAboutYourProfessorIntroductionLectureHiroshimaandtheOriginsoftheColdWarLectureTheSuperpowersandtheWorldinLectureTheStruggleforEuropeLectureGlobalizingtheColdWarLectureTheKoreanWarandChangingPowerBalancesLectureTurmoilintheThirdWorldLectureTheCubanMissileCrisisLectureTheTurbulentsLectureOriginsofDétenteLectureRevolutionintheThirdWorldandtheEndofDétenteLectureTheArmsRaceandtheBreakdownofDétenteLectureTheReaganOffensiveLectureGorbachevandtheEndoftheColdWarLectureUnderstandingtheColdWarCourseMaterialsAboutYourProfessorDavidSPainterProfessorPainterteachesinternationalhistoryintheEdmundAWalshSchoolofForeignServiceatGeorgetownUniversityHispublicationsincludeOilandtheAmericanCentury:ThePoliticalEconomyofUSForeignOilPolicy,–()OriginsoftheColdWar:AnInternationalHistory(coeditor,nded,)TheColdWar:AnInternationalHistory(),andarticlesontheColdWar,oilandworldpolitics,andUSpolicytowardtheThirdWorldProfessorPainterreceivedhisundergraduateeducationatKingCollegeHecontinuedhisstudiesatOxfordUniversity,wherehewasaRhodesScholar,andattheUniversityofNorthCarolinaatChapelHill,wherehereceivedhisPhDinUnitedStateshistoryYouwillgetthemostoutofthiscourseifyoureadthefollowingbooks:DavidSPainter’sTheColdWar:AnInternationalHistoryandMelvynPLefflerandDavidSPainter’s(eds)OriginsoftheColdWar:AnInternationalHistory©FloraandCharlesPainterIntroductionThedevastatingUSatomicbombingoftheJapanesecitiesofHiroshimaandNagasakinotonlybroughtWorldWarIItoanend,buteffectivelygavebirthtotheColdWarThepostwarworldwouldthereafterbemarkedbythefragilerelationshipoftwosuperpowerswithopposingideologies:theUnitedStatesandtheSovietUnionForfortyfiveyears,thesetwosuperpowerswouldvieforsupremacyinworldpoliticsTheColdWar,definedbyeventssuchastheCubanMissileCrisis,turmoilintheThirdWorld,andthearmsrace,heldthepotentialforanapocalypticconfrontationthatcouldhavespelleddoomforthehumanraceUnderstandingtheColdWar,withallofitsfarreaching,globalimplications,isabsolutelyessentialtoourunderstandingofthehistoryofthesecondhalfofthetwentiethcenturyandbeyond©ClipartcomTheUSatomicbombingsoftheJapanesecitiesofHiroshimaandNagasakiinAugustwerekeyeventsinthehistoryofthepostWorldWarIIworldTheattacks,whichtookthelivesofover,people,mostlycivilians,markedtheendofWorldWarIIandthebeginningoftheColdWarThecontroversyarousedbyaproposedexhibitattheSmithsonianInstitutioninmarkingthethanniversaryoftheattacksdemonstratedthatthebombingsofHiroshimaonAugust,,and,threedayslater,ofNagasaki,continuetoraiseimportantmoralaswellasdiplomaticandstrategicissuesThecontroversyalsorevealedawidedivergencebetweenpopularperceptionsoftheseeventsandtheviewsofmostscholarsTheDecisiontoUsetheAtomicBombTounderstandtheUSdecisiontouseatomicbombsagainstJapanandhowitaffectedthepostwarworld,onehastobeginwithFranklinDRooseveltPresidentRooseveltmadeaseriesofdecisionsthatconstitutedalegacythatsignificantlyshapedandlimitedtheoptionsavailabletohissuccessor,HarrySTrumanTheUSprogramtobuildatomicweapons,theManhattanProject,wasdriveninitiallybythefearthatNaziGermanywasdevelopingsuchweaponsFromtheoutsetUSpolicymakersviewedtheatomicbombasalegitimateweaponofwarfarethatwouldbeusedwhenitwasreadySecond,wellbeforetheattacksonHiroshimaandNagasaki,thedistinctionbetweencivilianandmilitarytargetshadbeeneffectivelyerasedastheUnitedStatesandtheotherparticipantsinthewarhadengagedinareabombingofurbanandindustrialareasThird,althoughUSandBritishscientistsworkedcloselytogethertobuildatomicweapons,PresidentRooseveltdecidednottoshareinformationaboutthebombwithhisotherally,theSovietUnionRooseveltandBritishleaderWinstonChurchillbelievedthatpossessionofatomicweaponswouldenhanceUSandBritishstrengthandbargainingleverageinthepostwarworldandoffsettoanextentsuchSovietadvantagesasmanpowerandlocationintheheartofEurasiaFinally,RooseveltandUSmilitaryleadersfollowedastrategyofminimizingUScasualtiesthroughoutthewarThecontextinwhichUSdiscussionsaboutusingtheatomicbombagainstJapantookplacewasalsoimportantThespringofsawtheendofthewarinEurope,thebloodyclimaxofthewarinthePacific,theemergenceofproblemsbetweentheWesternalliesandtheSovietUnion,andthesuccessfulcompletionofUSeffortstobuildanatomicbombThus,theUSdecisiontouseatomicweaponsagainstJapantookplaceattheintersectionofWorldWarIIandtheColdWarLECTUREONETheSuggestedReadingforthislectureisJSamuelWalker’sPromptandUtterDestruction:TrumanandtheUseoftheAtomicBombsAgainstJapanLecture:HiroshimaandtheOriginsoftheColdWarAContinuingControversyOverthepastfortyyears,scholarshaveincreasinglychallengedthewidespreadbelief,fosteredbythewritingsofparticipantsandtheirsupporters,thatthedecisiontouseatomicweaponsagainstJapanwasamilitarydecisionaimedatendingthewarquicklyandminimizingUScasualtiesAccordingtothetraditionalview,useoftheatomicbombwasjustifiedbecauseJapanwasnotpreparedtosurrenderandtheonlyalternativewasapotentiallycostlyinvasionofJapanInadditiontopointingoutthatRooseveltandChurchillbelievedthatpossessionofatomicweaponsgavetheWestleverageovertheSovietUnionandwithheldinformationaboutthebombfromtheirwartimeally,scholarshavenotedthatTrumanpostponedthePotsdamConferenceuntilthefirsttestofthebombDuringtheconference,theUnitedStatesshiftedfromfavoringSovietentryintothewaragainstJapantoapolicyoftryingtoendthewarbeforetheSovietscouldmakegainsinAsiaOnthebasisofcontemporaryplanningdocuments,scholarshavealsodemonstratedthattheestimatesofUScasualtiesresultingfromaninvasionofJapancitedinearlyaccountsbyparticipantswerevastlyinflatedSomehavesuggestedthattheinflatedfiguresweregiventojustifyuseofthebombScholarsalsopointoutthattheUnitedStatesusedatomicweaponsinearlyAugustbeforeSovietentryintothewarandwellbeforetheplannedinvasionofJapaninNovemberFinally,scholarshavenotedthattherewereotheralternativestoaninvasion,includingcontinuingconventionalbombingandtheblockadeofJapan,waitingtoseewhatimpactSovietentryintothewarwouldhaveonJapan’sleaders,modifyingthedemandforunconditionalsurrender,andanoncombatdemonstrationoftheatomicbombRecentscholarshiphasshownthatJapaneseleaders,includingEmperorHirohito,werenotpreparedtosurrenderbeforeHiroshimaeventhoughtheyclearlyrecognizedthatJapanhadlostthewarEvenaftertheattackonHiroshima,someJapanesemilitaryleaderswantedtocontinuethewarIttookthecombinedimpactofHiroshimaandSovietentryintothewartoforceJapantosurrenderANewConsensusAlthoughcontroversystillexistsamongscholars,anewconsensushasbeguntoemergeFirst,scholarsemphasizethemomentumgeneratedbytheassumptionthattheatomicbombwasalegitimateweaponofwarthatshouldbeusedIndeed,ratherthanadecisiontousethebomb,therewasnodecisionnottouseitSecond,comparedtotheotheralternativestoaninvasionofJapan,usingtheatomicbombhadthegreatadvantageofendingthewarquicklywithminimalUScasualtiesEverydaythewarcontinued,moreUSservicepersonneldiedContinuingthewarwasalsoverycostlyinmonetaryterms,threatenedtounderminepublicsupportforthewar,andtiedupUSmilitaryassetsinAsiawhentheycouldbeusedelsewhereEndingthewarquicklyalsohaddiplomaticadvantages,asitpromisedtolimitSovietgainsinAsiaSomeUSpolicymakersalsohopeditwouldputpressureontheSovietstolimittheirgainsinEuropebybolsteringWesternstrengthManypeopleintheUnitedStatesalsosawuseofthebombagainstJapanasjustretributionfortheJapaneseattackonPearlHarborandJapanesetreatmentofUSandalliedprisonersofwarSomepolicymakerswereevenconcernedLECTUREONEthatunlessthebombwasusedtherewouldbepubliccriticismofthemassiveamountsofresourcespouredintoitsdevelopmentThecostsoftheatomicattacksonHiroshimaandNagasakiwerehighFirst,therearethe,liveslostintheattacksandtheirimmediateaftermathSecond,itisclearthatUSuseofthebombandUSpolicyregardingatomicweaponsexacerbatedtensionswiththeSovietUnionandfueledanarmsracePossessionofthebomblessenedtheneedfortheRedArmytohelpcontrolGermany,andthusmadetheUnitedStateslesswillingtoacquiesceinaSovietsphereofinfluenceinEasternEuropeortoacceptSovietadvancesintheMiddleEastorAsiaThebombstiffenedSovietdeterminationtocontrolEasternEuropeandotherborderareasbecauseoftheneedtoextendtheirdefensesagainstanairattackTheUSatomicmonopolyalsomadetheSovietslesswillingtocompromiseonkeyissueslesttheyappearintimidatedandthusinvitefurtherpressureFinally,USpossessionanduseofatomicweaponsincreasedSovietdeterminationtodeveloptheirownatomicarsenalAlthoughfarfewerpeoplediedasaresultoftheHiroshimaandNagasakiattacksthanwouldhavediedintheeventofanalliedinvasionoftheJapaneseislands,suchaninvasionwasanunlikelypossibilityStill,itispossibletoarguethatendingthewarquicklywithatomicweaponssavedthelivesofthousandsofsoldiersandcivilians,includingJapanesesoldiersandcivilians,andciviliansinoccupiedareaswhoweredyingeverydaythewarcontinuedFinally,afterlearningofthemassivedestructionandlossoflifecausedbytheattackonHiroshima,PresidentTrumanorderedthatnomoreatomicattacksbelaunchedwithouthisexpressauthorizationJapansurrenderedonAugust,andatomicweaponshaveneveragainbeenusedincombatThat,perhaps,istheonegreatgainfromtheiruseinAugustWhatfactorslaybehindtheUnitedStates’sdecisiontouseatomicweaponsinJapanWhatweretheoutcomesoftheuseofatomicweaponsagainstJapaninWalker,JSamuelPromptandUtterDestruction:TrumanandtheUseoftheAtomicBombsAgainstJapanRevisededitionChapelHill,NC:UniversityofNorthCarolinaPress,Hogan,MichaelJ,edHiroshimainHistoryandMemoryNewYork:CambridgeUniversityPress,Sherwin,MartinJAWorldDestroyed:HiroshimaandItsLegaciesThirdedStanford,CA:StanfordUniversityPress,Walker,JSamuel“RecentLiteratureonTruman’sAtomicBombDecision:ASearchforMiddleGround”DiplomaticHistory(April):–�QuestionsSuggestedReadingFORGREATERUNDERSTANDINGOtherBooksofInterestTheColdWarwasatthecenterofworldpoliticsforfortyfiveyearsItdominatedtheforeignpoliciesofthetwosuperpowerstheUnitedStatesandtheSovietUnionanddeeplyaffectedtheirsocietiesandtheirpolitical,economic,andmilitaryinstitutionsTheColdWaralsoshapedtheforeignpolicyanddomesticpoliticsofmostothernationsaroundtheglobeFewcountries,infact,escapeditsinfluenceBecausethedistinctivecharacteristicsoftheColdWareratookformintheyearsimmediatelyfollowingWorldWarII,examiningitsoriginsiscentraltounderstandinginternationalhistoryinthelasthalfofthetwentiethcenturyTheAftermathofWorldWarIIFirst,itisimportanttounderstandhowWorldWarIIacceleratedfundamentalchangesintheglobaldistributionofpower,inweaponstechnology,intheinternationaleconomy,inthebalanceofpoliticalforcesamongandwithinnations,andinrelationsbetweentheindustrialnationsandtheThirdWorldWorldWarIIwroughtprofoundchangesintheinternationalstatesystem,bringingaboutamassiveredistributionofpower,endingcenturiesofEuropeandominance,andfacilitatingtheriseoftwocontinentsizesuperpowers,theUnitedStatesandtheSovietUnionBeforeWorldWarII,thereweresiximportantpowersbytheendoftheconflict,theUnitedStatesstoodaloneasthestrongestnationintheworld,itspowerenhancedbyitswareffort,itsrivalsdefeated,anditsalliesexhaustedTheSovietUnionexperiencedalmostincalculablehumanandmateriallossesandwasadistantsecondGreatBritain,drainedbysixyearsoffighting(whichcostitaquarterofitswealth)andfacingupheavalinitsempire,wasanevenmoredistantthirdHumiliatedbyitscollapsein,deeplydividedovertheissueofcollaboration,severelydamagedbythewar,andbeleagueredbyrebelliouscolonies,FranceslippedfromtheranksofthegreatpowersThwartedinitssecondbidforEuropeanhegemony,GermanylayinruinsandwasoccupiedbyitsenemiesJapan,too,wasdevastatedanddemoralizedShockedbytheatomicattacksonHiroshimaandNagasaki,shornoftheircolonialempire,andoccupiedbyUSforces,theJapaneseappearedpowerlessTheTechnologyofWarChangesinthetechnologyofwarreinforcedtheshiftsintheglobalbalanceofpowerDuringWorldWarII,conventionalweaponsreachednewheightsofdestructiveness,andpowerprojectioncapabilitiestookaquantumleapforwardwiththedevelopmentoftheaircraftcarrierandlongrangebombersWorldWarIIalsodemonstratedthatcontrolofoilhadbecomeanimportantsourceofmilitarypowerAllthekeyweaponssystemsofWorldWarIIwereTheSuggestedReadingforthislectureisDavidSPainter’sTheColdWar:AnInternationalHistory,Chapter:“TheColdWarBegins,–”Lecture:TheSuperpowersandtheWorldinLECTURETWOoilpowered:surfacewarships(includingaircraftcarriers),submarines,airplanes(includinglongrangebombers),tanks,andalargeportionofseaandlandtransportThesystematicapplicationofsciencetowarfareresultedinnewtechnologiesradar,thejetengine,cruiseandballisticmissiles,andtheatomicbombthatopenednewandterrifyingprospectsTheatomicbombmagnifiedthescaleofdestructionandconcentrateditintimeFearsofan“atomicPearlHarbor”placedapremiumonpreparednessandpreemptionThearmsracethatresultedcontributedgreatlytointernationaltensionsasGreatBritain,theSovietUnion,andothernationssoughttodeveloptheirownatomicweaponsandtheUnitedStatestriedtomaintainitsleadEconomicsInternationaleconomicdevelopmentsalsoshapedtheColdWarEconomichardshipthreatenedtosparkconflictbetweennationsaswellastorekindleclassconflictwithinnationsInthes,theworldhadsplitintoeconomicblocs,andinternationaltradeandnationalproductionplummetedasattemptstogainunilateraladvantageselicitedcountermeasuresthatfurtherrestrictedproduction,entrenchedmassunemployment,accentuatedclassconflict,andexacerbatednationalrivalriesSubsequently,wartimemobilizationintensifiedtheautarkic,insulated,nationalistictendenciesofthesAlthoughtheAlliescreatednewfinancialinstitutions(liketheInternationalMonetaryFundandtheWorldBank)attheBrettonWoodsConferencein,theendofthewarthreatenedtorevivethepoliciesofthesratherthancreateanopenworldeconomyFacedwithmassivereconstructionrequirementsandinadequatefinancialresources,manygovernmentsextendedeconomiccontrolsintothepostwarperiodThesedevelopmentsportendednotreformandreconstruction,butarepeatoftheexperiencesoftheseconomicstagnation,politicalextremism,andinterstateconflictPoliticalForcesChangesinthebalanceofpoliticalforcesbothwithinandamongnationsduringandafterWorldWarIIfurthercomplicatedinternationalrelationsThebasicassumptionwasthataregime’sinternalideologicalorientationwouldsignificantlyinfluence,ifnotdetermine,itsinternationalalignmentIntermsofideology,theoutcomeofWorldWarIIseemedtofavortheleftandtheSovietUnion,atleastintheshortrunAlmosteverywherepeopleyearnedforsignificantsocioeconomicreforms,forstructuralchangesintheireconomiesandpoliticalinstitutions,andforimprovementsintheirlivingconditionsInmostcountries,rightwinggroupswerediscreditedbecauseoftheirassociationwiththedefeatedAxispowersIncontrast,CommunistPartymembershipsoaredbecauseofthemajorroleCommunistsplayedinantifascistresistancemovementsUSpolicymakersworried,andSovietleadershoped,thatwhereverandhoweverCommunistgroupsattainedpower,theywouldpursuepoliciesthatservedtheinterestsoftheSovietUnionFinally,WorldWarIIunderminedcolonialism,andindependencemovementsblossomedinthepostwarperiodManyThirdWorldmovementshadbeenradicalizedbyyearsofprotractedstruggleandrepressionRevolutionarynationalistleaders

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