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首页 Owen,+Stephen+-+The+Making+of+Early+Chinese+Clas…

Owen,+Stephen+-+The+Making+of+Early+Chinese+Classical+Poetry+(clearscan+OCR).pdf

Owen,+Stephen+-+The+Making+of+E…

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2010-10-09 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《Owen,+Stephen+-+The+Making+of+Early+Chinese+Classical+Poetry+(clearscan+OCR)pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

�TheMakingofEarlyChineseClassicalPoetryHarvardEastAsianMonographs�TheMakingofEarlyChineseClassicalPoetryStephenOwenPublishedbytheHarvardUniversityAsiaCenteranddistributedbyHarvardUniversityPressCambridge(Massachusetts)andLondon©bythePresidentandFellowsofHarvardCollegePrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaTheHarvardUniversityAsiaCenterpublishesamonographseriesand,inco­ordinationwiththeFairbankCenterforEastAsianResearch,theKoreaIn­stitute,theReischauerInstituteofJapaneseStudies,andotherfacultiesandinstitutes,administersresearchprojectsdesignedtofurtherscholarlyunder­standingofChina,Japan,Vietnam,Korea,andotherAsiancountriesTheCenteralsosponsorsprojectsaddressingmultidisciplinaryandregionalissuesinAsiaLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataOwen,Stephen,ThemakingofearlyChineseclassicalpoetryStephenOwenpcm(HarvardEastAsianmonographs)IncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexISBN:(hbk:alkpaper)ISBNlO:(hbk:alkpaper)ChinesepoetryBCADHistoryandcriticismTitleIISeriesPL'dcIndexbyChristopherJDakinPrintedonacidfreepaperLastfigurebelowindicatesyearofthisprintingInmemoryofmyteacherHansFrankelABCDEFGIntroduction�Contents"Han"PoetryandtheSouthernDynastiesA"Grammar"ofEarlyPoetryImmortalsDeathandtheFeastAuthorandSpeakerImitationAppendixesYuejuasaGenericTermTheMusicalTraditionsAnthologiesandPoetryintheFiveSyllableLine"AsPerformedbytheJinMusicians"ExamplesoftheTopic"HumanLifeisBrief'ShyingEchoesinthe"OldPoems"ACaseImitations,Retellings,andRenditionsReferenceMatterSelectedBibliographyIndexOlTheMakingofEarlyChineseClassicalPoetryIntroductionInhismonumentalPoetryofthePreQin,Han,Wei,Jin,andNorthernandSouthernDynasties,LuQinli,oneofthepre­eminentscholarsofthisperiod,followsestablishedcustominarrangingpoemsbyauthorinchronologicalorderTheearliestappearanceofthematurefivesyllableline,theformthatwastodominatetherestofLu'scompendium,wasapoemonafan,attributedtoLadyBan,wholivedinthereignofEmperorChengoftheHan(rBC)Aftergivingthetextofthepoemwithextensivenotesonitssourcesandvariants,LuQinlicon­cludes:"ThispoemwasprobablywrittenbyaprofessionalmusicianoftheWeiDynasty(AD)"ThereisnothingsurprisinghereforthoselongaccustomedtoworkingwithChinesesources,somuchsothatthescholarmightwonderwhywementionitatallIndeed,allanthologiesplacethepoemunderLadyBan'snameinthelastpartoftheWesternHan,thoughveryfewmodernscholarsandantholo­gistsactuallybelievethatthepoemwaswrittenbyLadyBanorwritteninthatperiodThechronologicalplacementofthepoemandtheattachednoteswhichdiscredittheattributionandgivethepoemamuchlaterdatedo,however,begaverysim­plequestiononwhichsomeimportantissueshangIftheau­thorofthebookandtheprobableconsensusofscholarsofpoetryofthisperiodagreethatthepoemwascomposedabouttwoandahalfcenturiesafterLadyBan,whyisthepoemplacedhere,inthereignofEmperorChengintheWesternHan,ratherthangivenasapoemofunknownauthorshipfromtheWei,manypageslater•IntroductionTheanswertothisquestioncomesinseverallayersTheeasy,pragmaticanswerisnottobelightlydismissed:thisiswhereareaderofLuQinli'scompendiumorofanyanthologyofearlypoetrywouldlookforthepoemWemaynowdisbelieve,forgoodreason,thatthepoemwaswrittenbyLadyBan,butthepoemhasbeenassociatedwithhernameforthepastfifteenhundredyearsEvenareaderwhodidnotbelieveinherau­thorshipofthepoemwouldstillexpecttofindhernameintheusualchronologicalpositioninthetableofcontentsofthecom­pilationandtofindthepoemunderhernameAmoreinter­estingreasonistheinabilitytosecurelyplacethepoemifweweretodetachitfromLadyBan'snameItcouldbeplacedamongtheanonymouspoemsoftheWeiDynasty,butevenLuQinliwouldprobablyadmitthatitcouldperhapscomefromtheJian'anReignoftheHan()orfromtheWesternJininthelastpartofthethirdcenturyThatis,ifoneactedontheconvictionthatthisfamouspoemwaswrittenlaterthanLadyBan,itwouldhavenosecureplaceinacompilationthatischronologicallyorganizedThesetwopointsmaybegeneralized:whatwewillcallearlyChinese"classicalpoetry"hasoverthecenturiesbecomeem­beddedinachronologicalaccount,anaccountwithgreatculturalhistoricalresonanceModernscholarshiphasseri­ouslyquestionedsomeofthecomponentsofthataccount,suchasLadyBan'spoemNoone,however,knowsquitewhattodowithapoemthathasbeendetachedfromtheaccountitnolongerhasa"place"itisnolongerfullymeaningfulbecauseitcannotfitintothehistoricalnetworkthatconfersmeaningThepoemthereforeiswiselykeptclosetoLadyBan'sname,eventhoughweknowthatitdoesn'ttrulybelongthereAfamouspoemthathadhadahomeforatleastamillenniumandahalfwouldotherwisebecomeavagrantLuQinli'scompilationbyandlargefollowstraditioninat­tachingearlyclassicalpoemstoauthorsandarrangingthoseauthorsinchronologicalsequenceAtthesametime,thehighqualityofhisscholarshiponthesources,alternativeattribu­tions,andtextualvariantsoftendestabilizestheveryhistoryimpliedintheorganizationThisisparticularlytrueofpoetrybeforethesecondhalfofthethirdcenturyIntroduction•InthepresentstudyIwilladoptadualapproach,twolinesofinquirythatcanneverbeperfectlydisentangledFirst,Iwilllookatthesurvivingmaterialfromthisearlyperiodsyn­chronically,asifitwerenothistoricallyarranged,withsomepoemsattachedtoauthorsandsomenotSecond,Iwillcon­siderhowthecurrentaccountoftheoriginsofclassicalpoetrywasconstructedoutofthismaterialinthelatefifthandearlysixthcenturies(whichIwillcallthe"QiandLiang,"thetwodynastiesintheSouthduringwhichthegreaterpartofextantliteraryscholarshiponearlypoetrytookplace)Theadvantageofthefirstapproachisthatbysettingasideaputativehistoryofdifferencesofgenreandauthor,wecanseethatinmanywaysthiswas"onepoetry,"createdfromasharedpoeticrepertoireandsharedcompositionalproceduresThesecondlineofin­quiryisalsonecessarybecausethetextualmediumthroughwhichwehavereceivedthismaterialhasbeenselectedandsometimesradicallyreshapedtoproduceourstandardaccountoftheoriginsofclassicalpoetryToexaminetheformationofthestandardaccountoftheoriginsofclassicalpoetryisnottodisbelievethepossibilitythatitmightbehistoricallytrueWhatweofferisacritiqueoftheassumptionsandtheevidenceusedtoprovethatitishistori­callytrueWhatwemustconcludeisthatwedonotknowwhenalargenumberofpoemswerecomposedand,perhapsmoreimportant,howtheychangedoverthecenturiesbeforeenteringthetextualrecordthatwenowhaveItispossible,asiscom­monlybelieved,thattheanonymous"Han"yuejupredateorarecontemporaneouswiththeanonymous"oldpoems,"whichinturnpredatetheJian'anReignItis,however,nolesspossiblethatourcurrent"oldpoems"postdatetheJian'anandthatourcurrentversionsofanonymousyuejupostdatethe"oldpoems"Therearepoemsbyknownauthorsinthiscorpusthatwecandateroughlyorprecisely,butwewilldiscussthefallaciesbywhichthosedatabletextsaredeployedtohistoricallypositionthemuchlargerbodyoftextswhosedatingisuncertain•Introduction•ThisstudyhastwohistoricalcentersThefirstis,ofcourse,theperiodofthepoetryunderdiscussion,stretchingfromuncer­tainbeginnings(noearlierthantheendofthefirstcenturyBC)tothelastpartofthethirdcenturyThesecondhistoricalcenteristheliteraryworldofJiankang,thecapitaloftheSouthernDynasties,fromthelatefifthtothemiddleofthesixthcentury,the"QiandLiang"Thescholarsofthislatterperiodedited,anthologized,andofferedcriticaljudgmentsonthepoetryofthefirstperiodTheyweretheprimarymediatorsthroughwhomlateragesreceivedthispoetry,anditisnoex­aggerationtosaythatthebeginningofChineseclassicalpoetryisasmuchtheircreationasitisthecreationofpoetsworkingtwoandahalftothreecenturiesearlierInsomecasesitisclearthatliterarymenoftheQiandLiangattributed,know­inglyornot,morerecentpoemstotheearlyperiodinordertofleshoutthecorpusofearlypoetryTounderstandbothourearly"historicalcenters"andhowthispoetryreachedtheQiandLiang,itisessentialtokeepinmindthatwearetalkingnotsomuchaboutpoemsandpoetsasaboutmanuscriptsItiseasytooverlookthisbecausethosemanuscriptsnolongerexistThemodernnotionofthe"text"asadisembodiedthingthattranscendsanyparticularpaperversionisverymuchtheconsequenceofprintcultureandmassreproductionThesetexts,however,existedinphysicalmanuscripts,somenodoubtinuniquecopiesatsomestageoftheirtransmissionJudgingfromourknowledgeofTangprac­tice,poemswereoftenwrittendownfrommemory,wheretheproductionofvariantsandvariationwasthenormManu­scriptswerecopiedandrecopiedwithdifferentdegreesofcare,alsointroducingvariantsThe"text"washighlyflammableWeknowthatcentrallibrarieswereplunderedandburnedWeknowthatthestatusofpoetryinthefivesyllablelineattainedunprecedentedheightsintheQiandLiang,andthescholarsoftheperiodshowedaninterestinthebeginningsofclassicalpoetry,aninterestforwhichwehavelittleearlierevidenceWecanassumewithsomeconfidencethatthecourtliterarycirclesoftheQiandLiangproducedbeautifulandcarefulmanu­scriptsofearlypoetryWehave,however,farlessconfidenceinthequalityofthemanuscriptstheywerecopying,andwehaveIntroduction﹒goodevidencethatthey“flxed"textsaccordingtotheirownstandardsoftasteTheonlyextensiveChinesemanuscriptlibraηTthatsurvivesisthatofDunhuangmanycenturieslaterItissuchapeculiarcas令aprovinciaBuddhistlibrarγon位lemarginsofChinesecivilizationthatitc但motserveasaperfectmodelbutitistheonlymodelwehaveWhatweflndthereiswhatmightbeex­pected:由ereisgreatvarietyinthequalityofmanuscriptsrangingfromthoseprepared叫thmeticulouscaretob訂elyliteratemanuscriptsriddledwithmistakesToalargedegree吐lelevelofcaretakenisproportionato位記“importance"ac­cordedtheworkbeingcopiedItisanunfortunatefactofcul­turahistorythatwhatwasunimportantinoneagemaybe­comeveryimport缸lt扭扭lOtherHistoriansofsonglyrics(ci詞)surelywouldwishthat也osecopyistshadtakenthesamecareincopyingearlysongsthatotherstookinpreparingaflnecopyoftheeighthcenturypoetGaoShi'sworksIfwecarrythislessonbacktotheearlierperiodunderdis­cussionweknowthatQi缸ldLiangscholarsdidfeelthatearlypoetrywasimportantThemanuscriptswithwhichtheyworkedhoweverhadtopassthroughgenerationsofcopying缸ldaswesaidweareignorantofthescholarlycarewithwhichthoseearliermanuscriptswereprep缸edTheLiangmonkSengyou前onepointgivesuseloquenttestimonytotheterribletextuastateoftheBuddhistmanuscriptshewasworkingonWedohavesomeevidencethoughlikemuchofthemate­riafromthisperioditisopentovaryinginterpretationsAgroupoftheearlyanonymoussonglyrics缸ldlyricsbyCaoprincesappe訂sinthe“TreatiseonMusic"(“Yuezhi"禦志)oftheSongshu宋書compiledbyShenYue沈約()WhilethegreaterpartoftheSongshuwascompletedinthe“TreatiseonMusic"wasnotflnisheduntiltheearlysixthcenturyper­hapsat由ebeginningoftheLiangThisworkgrowsoutofatraditionofcommentingonmusic(andperhapspreservinglyrics)forcourtperfoIτnance缸lditisvauablepreciselybe­causeitsmotiveisconservationratherthanpleasingreadersinterestedinpoetryAnyonewhohasworkedwiththismateriaInhisintroductiontoascholarlyeditionofthe“Yuezhi"SuJinrensuggeststhatthefinalformwasnotcompleteduntiltheLiang•Introduction(withoutthevariouslateremendations)knowsthatitisfilledwitherrorstranspositionsloancharactersandmissingwordsalongwithpassagesandsometimeswholepoemsthatareutterlyincomprehensibleOnewaytoaccountforthisisoraltransmissionbyperformersbutShenYue'sversioneitherisamanuscripttranscriptionorfaithfullycopiesmanuscripttranscriptions(Indeedtheonlywaytoaccountforoneofthemostlearnedmenofhisagewritingdowntextsinthiswayisacommitmenttotheexactreproductionofhissources)Someotherearlypoetrγprobablyalsocirculatedorallybeforeitwastranscribedwecanneverperfectydistinguishthechanges勻toatextthatoccurinoraltransmissionintranscriptionoforaltextsandinmanuscripttransmissionShenYue'sveryfidelitytotranscribingtextsashehadthem(includingonepoemsounreadablethatmodernscholarsdonotevenventurepunc­tuation)givesusanimageofonestageandlevelofreceivedmanuscriptsinthelatefifthcenturyThefactthatthesemusthavebeencourtmanuscriptswithalonghist。可ofscholarshipbehindthemdoesnotinspireconfidenceinthequalityofmanuscriptsforless“significant"textsTheYutαixinyong玉臺新詠compiledtowardthemiddleofthesixthcentu月八wasintendedforreadersofpoetηrwhoal­readyhadaninterestinearlypoetryAnumberofpoemsfromthe“TreatiseonMusic"reappeartherealbeitofteninaverydifferentguise:incongruouspassagesaredroppedrhyminglinesthatdonotrhymearemadetorhymeincomprehensiblepassagesaremadecomprehensibleInYutaixinyongearlypoetryiss句rlisticallydistinctfrommorerecentpoetrybutitispoeticallycomprehensiblebyearlysixthcentu可andlaterstandardsSomeChinesescholarshavearguedthattheYutaixinyongversionsaretheoriginalpoemsandthattheversionsinthe“TreatiseonMusic"weremodifiedbysingers(thoughwhysingerswoulddroprhymesisincomprehensible)Theal­ternativechampionedbyJeanPierreDi臼yseemsmoreplausible:inthesecasesXuLing徐陵theeditorofYutaixin­yongtooktextsfromthe"TreatiseonMusic"andeditedthemforcontempora可poetictasteIfwebelievethatXuLingdidthiswiththehandfuloftextswithalternativeversionsinthe“TreatiseonMusic"whatarewetothinkofthe叮genumberofotherearlytextsforwhichYutαixinyongistheonlyprimaryIntroduction﹒sourceAswewillseewehavesomeothertracesofsixth­centuηTeditorialpracticestracesthatremindusthattheproductionofanthologiesandmanuscripttextswasanactiveprocedureratherthanapassivecopyingofreceivedmanuscriptsWeknowXuLing'snameandwecanguesshisroleinshapingmanyofthetextsthathavecometorepresentearlyclassicalpoetryInthaterahowevertherearealsomanyfor­gottennamesofeditorsandscribesalldoinglittlethingstotextsWeknowthatscholarsthenbelievedinflxingerrorsinmanuscriptsbutasixthcenturyscholar's“error"mightbepreciousevidencetothescholarofthetwen可flrstcentu可﹒WecanimaginehowtheytinkeredastheycopiedchangingthisreshapingthatwritingdownaplausibleauthorAndifthisissothetextswehavedonotcomefromsomeearlymomentof“authorship"butfromacomplexhistoryofchangesThusthesto月TofthebeginningofChineseclassicalpoetryisnotjustastoryofthe“HanandWei"butasto月TofhowtheQiandLiangthelateflfthandearlysixthcenturiesshapedtheevidenceforastoryof“HanandWei"Assaidabovethisstudyhas“twohistoricalcenters"butwecanneverentirelydisentangletheflrstcenterclassicalpoetryuptothelastpartofthethirdcenturyfromthesecondcenter一theQiandLiangThetwocenturiesinbetweenourtwohistoricalcentersalsoobviouslyplayedaverylargerolebothintransformingreceivedmaterialsand“supplementing"themThebasisofourinquirybeginswiththematerialsourcesandtheirnatureratherthantheusualquestionsof“genre"“au­thor"or“poem"Therearemanyrelativelystabletexts:stableinthedegreeofvariationintheascriptionofauthorshipandinthetitlethateventuallydeterminedagenreorsubgenreThere訂ehoweverjustasmanyormoretextsthatarefluidinalltheseessentialqualitiesAlthoughtherewascertainlyaveryloosesenseofpoeticgenreinthethirdcentu月九thegenresystemthatwenowknowwasaproductoftheQiandLi由andremainedrelativelyfluideventhroughtheTangIfwethinkof“authorship"的apropertyofatextlikeatitethenwecanseethatinmanycasesitwassomethingaddedbyinferencejustastitlessooftenwereWecanalsoseethepointatwhich•IntroductionanonymitycameintobeingasavalueinitsownrightApoetictextthatsimpycircuateswithoutanamedoesnotbecome“anonymous"untilitentersaliteraryregimenwherenamesareassigneddecidedandarranged旭chronogicalorderAprimaryfocusonsourcesratherthangenrealwsustoseeyue舟agenreonwhichmuchinkhasbeenspiedfirstandforemostasabibliographicalcategoryIfthereisayuefu“genre"itistosomedegreeagenreofmanuscriptratherthanofpoetryCertainkindsofpoetictextswerepreservedprimarilyorexcusiveyinthisbibliographicalcategorybutmanytextscoudappe缸inotherkindsofmanuscriptsaswell(suchas“poet可"扭曲ologies)ItsreofmusicalcategoriesandtheiroriginstransmittedngafterthemusicwasstwasaparticuarandonemightevensaypecuiartraditionofschoarshipwithitsownprotocosSomepartof也atmanu­scripttraditionsurvivedtoinformGuoMaoqian'sgreatcom­pendiumtheYuefushiji樂府詩集competedaroundtheturnofthetwefthcentury﹒Guocearyreliedheavilyon也emidsixthcenturyGujinyuelu古今樂錄whichpostdatestheageofschoaryconsolidationofearysourcesin位leQiandLiangThiswasbutoneworkamongmanywhicheadstothedisturbingquestion:TowhatdegreeisoneimportantpartofourknowedgeofearyyuφJafiedrichindisputedreevenintheearyperiodafunctionofthechancesurvivalofoneorafewworksintotheSongTherewederiveisinterestingsometimesusefuandoftenambiguousAndwhatdowedowhenapassageofayue戶Jiscitedinaseventh

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