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首页 空手道自卫术

空手道自卫术.pdf

空手道自卫术

医生
2010-09-24 0人阅读 举报 0 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《空手道自卫术pdf》,可适用于工程科技领域

SELFDEFENSENERVECENTERSPRESSUREPOINTSisapracticalguidetothemostefficentuseofweaponlessselfdefenseusingtheleastpossibleforceTheresultsofselfdefenseactionsaredescribedinthemostaccuratewaypossible,takingintoaccountthefactorsofrelativesize,strength,healthandemotionsModernknowledgeofphysiologyandanatomyisappliedtothissubjectwhichhaslongbeenmuchobscuredbymyth,superstitionandlegendThesocalled"deadly"blowsareevaluatedFantasyandfactareseparatedAppropriatebodytargetsforpracticalselfdefensetacticsarecomparedwithpointtargetsusedinstylizedandtraditionalmartialartsandinsporttournamentmatchesFortheteacherandstudentofselfdefenseorofanyspecialtyofthemartialartsthisbookwillbeanimportantreferencesourceINTRODUCTIONWHATISSELFDEFENSEAmoderndefinitionofselfdefenseisinorderOnewayofdefiningselfdefenseistoexplainwhatitisnotPersonalselfdefenseisnotwarfareitisnotvengeanceitisnotanartitisnotasportingeventitisnotamovieortelevisionfightsceneSelfdefenseispreparationtominimizethepossibilityofassaultItistrainingtolearnanduseappropriateandeffectivephysicalactionsifthereisnopracticalavailablealternativeSelfdefenseinstructionisthebeginningofaprocessoflearninghowtoavoidbecomingavictimManyvictimsofassaultarevictimsnotbecausetheylackthecapacitytowinfightsbutbecausetheyhavebeengivenabsolutelynopreparationtocopewiththisspecialkindofemergencyTheoldfashionedviewthatselfdefenseinstructionistrainingtoreachahighleveloffightingskillhastheeffectofeliminatingthoseindividualswhohavethegreatestneedItispreciselythosepeoplewhoareunableorunwillingtobecomefiercefightingmachineswhobenefitfrompracticalselfdefenseinstructiontothegreatestdegreeOurcapabilitiesoughttobearsomerelationshiptoreallifeobjectivesPeoplelearningtodefendthemselvesagainstassaultoughtnottobetrainedasthoughtheywerepreparingforwarfareTheconcepts,techniquesandmethodsappropriatefortrainingSamuraiwarriorsarenotthoseappropriateforteachingselfdefenseasapracticalskillfortodayThelegalandmoraldefinitionofselfdefenseexpresslylimitsthedegreeofforcetotheleastwhichcanbeusedtoavert,stop,orescapefromanintendedassaultInoldstyleselfdefense,everyassaultisviewedasaveryviciousassaultReallifeisdifferentTherearedegreesofBRUCETEGNERdangerAssaultintentionsrangefrommildlythreateningtotheintenttodogreatbodilyharmMoreimportant,therearemildlythreateningsituationswhich,ifhandledproperlywithassertiveselfcontrol,canbepreventedfromescalatingintophysicalviolenceTheremustbeafullrangeofresponsestocorrespondtotherangeofpossiblesituationsOtherwisethereisonlytheallornothingresponse,whichisnotachoiceitisadilemmaThepersonwhocannotcopewithamildlythreateninghostileactdoesnothing,orrespondstothemildthreatasifitwereaviciousassaultIftheintendedvictimispassiveitencouragestheassailantandassaultiveactionismorelikelytooccurReactingtoamildthreatasthoughitwereaviciousassaultisinappropriateTheobjectiveofethicalselfdefenseinstructionistoteachappropriateandeffectiveresponsesTheobjectiveofthisbookistogiveinformationandguidancetowardmakingthoseappropriateresponsesWHATARENERVECENTERSPRESSUREPOINTS"Nervecenters"and"pressurepoints"arenotscientificdescriptionsofanatomicalentitiesTheyarelayman'stermswhichweuseforeverydaydiscussionofthisaspectofoursubjectNervecenterisusedtodescribebodyareaswhicharemostsusceptibletopainsensationonmostpeoplebecauseofaconcentrationofrelativelyexposednervesInthissensetheshinisanervecenterNotallnervesarecarriersofimpulsesexperiencedaspain,sonotallconcentrationsofnervesproduceanervecenterinourtermsThebuttockshaveahighconcentrationofnerves,butthisareaisordinarilyoneoftheleastsensitivePressurepoint,inthistext,indicatesanareawhichispeculiarlyvulnerabletoinjuryorincapacitatingpainAnexampleisthewindpipeNERVECENTERSSUPERSTITIONORKNOWLEDGETheAsianfightingskillswerepracticedanddevelopedmanycenturiespriortothediscoveryoftheactualnatureofvitalbodyfunctionssuchastheprocessofdigestionandthecirculationofthebloodAmongtheancients,musclecontractions,palpitations,intestinalgrowlingandothersuchinternalstirringsandaudibleprocesseswerethoughttoresultfromreptilespiritswhichresidedwithinthebodyandthatthesehyperphysicalserpentsanddragonsmovedaboutinresponsetospecifichumanactivityWeoughttobecarefulaboutacceptingancientideasastruthmerelybecausetheyareoldWemaynothavemademuchprogresstowardanunderstandingofthehumanpsyche,butwedoknowagreatdealmorenowthanweusedtoknowaboutourphysicalstructureandourbodyfunctionsIfyouareseriouslyinterestedinthissubjectfieldyoushouldmakeareasonablythoroughstudyofanatomyandofthemechanicsofthehumanbodyIfyouexpecttobeinvolvedinselfdefenseinstruction,evenonaninformal,nonprofessionalcluborgroupbasis,youhaveanabsoluteresponsibilitytobeinformedTherearetoomanypeopleinthisfieldwhoareuninformedandwhoarecirculatingancientsuperstitionsandmisconceptionsTheonlywaytorefuteignoranceiswithknowledgeTakecoursesinanatomyandphysiology,ifyoucanInmanyareastherearefreeadulteducationprogramsatthehighschoollevelIfyoucannottakeaformalclass,useyourlocallibraryforaselfdirectedstudyprogramusingthereferencebooksyouwillfindthereBRUCETEGNERKARATE,JUJITSUATEMIWAZAMartialartsisanomnibustermusedtodesignatemanydifferentstylesofweaponlessfightingaswellassystemsofarmedfightingAsthetermisnowused,itrefersonlytothosefightingstyleswhichdevelopedinAsiancountriesItwouldbemoreaccuratetoincludeamongthemartialartstheskillswhichwereoriginallyusedforcombatregardlessofthecountryorregioninwhichtheyweredevelopedFencing,wrestling,boxingandarcheryaremartialartsinexactlythesamesensethatjudo,kendo,karate,aikidoandkungfuaremartialartsThereareliterallyhundredsofstylesandsubstylesoftheweaponlessmartialartsbutthereisarelativelysmallgroupoftechniquesutilizedinallofthemThemajorgroupsoftechniquesare:Grapplingandbendingandtwistingthejoints(judo,aikido,wrestling)throwingandtrippingandtakedowns(judo,wrestling)handblows(boxing)handandfootblows(karate,jujitsu,kungfu,savate,atemiwaza,Taiboxing)Althoughtherearemanystylesandsubstylesofkarateandkungfu,allofthestylesutilizethetechniquesofhittingandkickingatnervecentersandpressurepointsAlthoughtherearehundredsofstylesofjujitsu,mostofthemincludetechniquesofhittingandkickingatnervecentersandpressurepointsAtemiwazaissolelyconcernedwithtechniquesofhittingandkickingatspecificnervecenterandpressurepointbodytargetsThegeneraltermmartialartsandthespecialtytermssuchaskarate,kungfu,judo,jujitsu,aikidoandothernamesfortheAsianstylefightingskillsareusedindiscriminatelybythelaypublicForanoverviewofthesubjectfieldandclarificationofsomeofthedifferencesandsimilaritiesamongthespecialtiesseethecurrenteditionoftheEncyclopediaAmericanawhichisavailableforreferenceatmostpubliclibrariesBRUCETEGNERPAINTHEPSYCHODYNAMICSOFSELFDEFENSEForconveniencewespeakofpainassomethingwhichisinflictedInfact,painisamorecomplicatedmatterPaininvolvestwofactorsoneistheapplicationofastimulusandtheotheristheresponsetothestimulusThereisanastonishingrangeofresponsestoexactlythesamestimulusTherearepeoplewhogotothedentistcalmlyandareabletothinkaboutsomethingelsewhiledentalworkisbeingdoneOthersgotothedentistinastateoffearfulagitationandenduredentalworkinacuteagonyThereareindividualswhocanpresentthemselvesforinjectionsorinnoculationswithnosignofanxietyThereareotherswhofainteachtimetheygetashotThereareindividualswhosefearandanxietyaboutphysicalviolenceissointensethattheideaofthepossibilityofassaultisterrifyingForthesepeoplethestimulusofablowwouldprobablyprovokeaveryhighresponseofpainFearful,anxiousindividualswillexperienceanassaultwithgreatertraumathanthosewhohaveahighertoleranceforpainJustasdifferentindividualsresponddifferentlytotheblowsofanassault,differentindividualswillrespondindifferentwaystotheblowsofaphysicaldefenseactionThebasicconceptinoldstyleselfdefensetrainingisthatonemustdevelopanextremelyhighleveloffightingskillThatconceptderivesfromcombatorientedtrainingForcombatitisnecessarytohavetheabilitytowinfightsandtohavethecapacityforinflictingmaximumpainButpainisonlyoneofthefactorsinselfdefenseAsimportantastheabilitytoinflictpainisanunderstandingofthepsychologicalinteractionbetweentheassailantandtheintendedvictimTherelationshipsinselfdefenseareverydifferentfromthoseincombatorincombatsportsItisamistaketoviewNERVECENTERS~ithethreeentirelydifferenteventsasthoughtheywerethesameInmostsportcontestsitisnotnecessarytoinflictanypaininordertowinInbattleitisnecessarytowound,incapacitateorkilltheopponentinordertowinTheamountofpainnecessaryinpracticalselfdefenseisonlythatwhichconvincesthewouldbeassailantthataspiritedandorderlydefensewillbemadeandthattheintendedvictimwillnotbepassiveEffectiveselfdefense,inmanyinstances,doesnoteveninvolveinflictingpainorresortingtophysicalactionsWhenphysicalactionsareappropriate,theymightresultinlittlepain,verygreatpain,ornotpainatall!Selfcontrol,determinedresistance,arefusaltoaccepttheroleofvictimarefactorswhichcouldbemuchmoreimportantforyoursafetyandwellbeingthantheabilitytoinflictpainThepersonwhochoosesahelplessorseeminglyvulnerabiindividualasanobjectforphysicalviolenceisnotbraveInmanyinstancesofthreatenedassaultthefirstindicatiolofrefusaltobeapassivevictimisenoughtodetertheassailantThisrefusalmightbeverbal(nopainatall)oritmight,intheeventofaseriousassault,involverespondingwithaforcefulblowTheabilitytorefrainfromusingphysicalactionsandtheabilitytoinflictappropriatepainareequallyimportantItisnotnecessarytobeahighlytrainedfighterinordertopresentyourselfascompetentandselfreliantGestureattitude,languageandtonecanconveythemessagethatyourefusetheroleofpassivevictimAnassertiveandconvincingmannerofrespondingtothethreatofassaultwillreducesignificantlythecarryingoutofthethreatBRUCETEGNERTHEMYTHSOFTHEDEADLYBLOWSLegend,fantasy,talltales,movieandtelevisionfightscenesandignorancehaveallcontributedtothemisconceptionsandcultstoriesaboutthesecretdeadlyblowsknownonlytoanelectfewofthemastersofthemartialartsAmongthemyths,legendsandmisconceptionswhicharesolemnlyrepeatedasthoughtheywerefactualarethoseofthemasterwhocouldreachinwithhisdaggerhandandpluckoutastillbeatingheart,orpullthespineoutofthelivingbodyofhisadversaryThereisthetaleofthedeathwithoutcontactandtheterribleandmysterioussevenyeardeathOneofthemostwidelycirculatedmisconceptionsisthatablowupwardunderthenosecancausedeathbydrivingthenasalbonesintothebrainCANNASALBONESBEDRIVENINTOTHEBRAINThispieceofnonsensecanbedisprovedbylookingatthehumanskullstructureinananatomybook,orbyexaminingaskullinananatomyclassAnysufficientlypowerfulblowtotheheadcouldbefatalButthecauseofdeathfromaforcefulblowupunderthenosewouldnotberelatedtonasalbonesdrivenintothebrainFatalitywouldresultfromshocktransmittedtothebrainMostofthenoseisnotbonebutcartilageThebonesofthenosearemorefragilethanthesurroundingskullstructureAforcefulblowwouldfracturethenasalbonesmoreeasilythanitwouldfracturetheskullEvenifthenasalboneswereintactthereisnochannelthroughwhichtheycouldenterthebrainTheonlyentrancestothebrainfromtheangleofanupwardblowarethepassagesfornervesandbloodvesselsandtheyaremuchtoosmalltoaccommodatenasalbonesSowhileitispossibletodeliverafatalblowbystrikingupunderthenose,deathwouldnotresultfrombonesenteringthebrainbutfromconcussionorrupturedbloodvesselsNERVECENTERSPLUCKINGOUTTHEHEARTORSPINEEveryculturehasitssuprahumanheroes,demigodsandlegendaryfiguresMythispartofallculturesanditservesaseriouspurposepartpoetic,partpropheticMythscreateanorderlypastandgiveusasenseofafutureinwhichwearegreaterthanwecaneverbetodayThereisadangerinregardinglegendasliteraltruthIfyoibelieveeverythingwithoutverificationitwilldullyourabilitytodistinguishfantasyfromfact,liesfromtruthAcredulouspersononewhodoesnotaskquestionsanddemandverifiableproofisinaperilouspositionAsaconsumer,asavoter,asaparticipantinahighlycomplexsociety,itisyourdutyandinyoursurvivalinteresttobeabletotellthedifferencebetweenfantasyandreality,betweenpromotionalhucksterismandplainfactSo,ifyouapproachthetalesofthekaratemastersaswonderfulAsianfolklorefine!TheproblemisthattoomanypeoplebelievethattheyarefactualThechillingtaleofthekaratemasterwiththepowertoreachintoahumanbodyandpluckouttheheartorspinecanonlybetakenaslegendItispatentlyabsurdtothinkofprovingordisprovingitBettertoleaveitwhereitbelongs,alongwiththeexploitsofPaulBunyanandJohnHenryTOUCHOFDEATHThetouchofdeathstoryisclearlyataleofmagicThepossessorofthismysteriouspowertocausedeathbymerelytouchingatasecretspothasneverbeenseennorhasanyvictimeverbeenidentifiedThisisagreatstoryforentertainmentbyfrightAvariationofthetouchofdeathlegendisthesevenyeardeathInthisversionthemasterpossessesthepowertotouchortostrikeatanadversarysothatdeathoccurssevenyearslaterBRUCETEGNERItisconceivablethatinafighttherecouldbeinternalinjuryleadingtodeteriorationormalfunctionofavitalorganandthatdeathcouldfollowafteranintervalThatwouldbeanaccidentButthesevenyeardeathtaledoesnotassignthepossibilityofaccidentWhatitproposesisthatsomeonewithsecretpowerscouldpredeterminetheexactdegreeofinjury,deliverexactlytherightamountofforceatpreciselythespottocausealingeringdeathataspecifiedfuturetimeThereisnoacceptableproofofsuchapossibilityThereisnosecrettoitAnyonewhocandeliveraforcefulblowofanystyletoavulnerablepartofthebodyiscapableofdeliveringa"deadly"blowAboxingblowofsufficientforceisasdeadlyasakarateorkungfublowofequalforceTHEMEDIAEntertainmentmoviesandtelevisionshowsdonotmakeclaimstoeducateusNeitherdothegossip"newsaboutpeople"publicationsButmostofusstillhavethebeliefthatwecantrustwhatweseeinthenewspapersCareful!Thenewsmediaisquicktoreportas"news"aneventthatisoutoftheordinaryTheydonotalwaysverifytheirinformationThewidelyreportedstoryofamanrenderedunconsciousbypressureappliedintohisarmpits(byawomanhewasattemptingtoassault)washailedasanewandwonderfultechniqueofselfdefenseNonsenseIndividualswhoareassaultivearenotincontroloftheiremotionsandareinastateofhighanxietyBreakdown,weeping,andrunningawayarenotuncommonreactionsamongassailantsconfrontedwithresistantbehaviorThemostlikelyexplanationfortheman'sunconsciousstateisthathefaintedNERVECENTERSHANDCONDITIONINGISNOTNECESSARY!Handconditioning,thehardeningandcallusingofthehands,isnotappropriateforsportorselfdefensekarateorjujitsuitisirrelevanttojudoInsportkarate,playersdonotmakecontactortheywearglovesIncontestwherecontactisprohibitedbytherules,playerswhohaveconditionedhandsarerequiredtowearbandagestominimizethepossibilityofinjuryifaccidentalcontactismadeInmatcheswherecontactispermitted,theplayersusepaddedglovesAkaratecontestantwhohadspentyearsinhandconditioningwouldnotbeallowedtohittheopponentplayerwithhishandweaponSportjudorulesforbidstrikingtheopponentplayerwithhandorfootblowsForpracticalselfdefenseitisneitherdesirablenornecessarytoconditionyourhandsHandconditioningwasanappropriatefeatureofancientkaratetrainingBecauseitwassometimesnecessarytobreakthroughthewoodenarmoroftheSamuraisoldier,karatefightersinfeudaltimeswererequiredtospendyearsofefforttocallusanddesensitizetheirhandsandfeetsothattheycoulddeliverforcefulblowstohardsurfaceswithoutfeelingpainTodaythereisnoreasontostrikeathardsurfacesinamannerwhichwouldhurtyournormal,unconditionedhandWithanunderstandingofappropriatebodytargetareas,youcanavoidstrikingathard,bonyareassuchasthecollarbone(clavicle)Whenyoudostrikeatabonystructure,suchasthekneeorthebridgeofthenose,youcanhitwithappropriatelyforcefulblowswithouthurtingyourselfAkickintothekneedoesnotrequireconditioninghittingwiththesideoftheclosedfistontothenosedeliversenoughforceforselfdefenseuseBRUCETEGNERHeavyconditioningcancausepermanentinjurytoyourhandsanditcanseriouslyimpairmanualdexterityExtremehandconditioningisirreversibleTheabilitytodoskillful,intricateworkmightbeseriouslyreducedIfajobrequirescontactwiththepublic,themisshapenappearanceofconditionedhandscouldbeanimpedimenttoemploymentHeavyconditioningimplieswillingnesstofightShouldyouneedtodefendyourselfonthestreet,youmighthavedifficultypersuadingthelawthatyouweredefendingyourselftheevidenceofconditionedhandswouldsuggestpreparationforfightingHandconditioningisnecessaryifyouwanttodostuntsandtrickssuchasbreakingbrickswithouthurtingyourselfIfyoureallyfeelthatitisimportanttoshowoffinsuchamanner,youwillhavetoworkatlongtermhandconditioningBeawarethatonceyouhaveheavilyconditionedhands,youareriskingthechancethattheywillneveragainbenormalItisaheavypricetopayfordoingastuntACCURACYOFTHEDESCRIPTIONSItismyobjectivetobeasaccurateaspossibleindescribingtheeffectsofblowsandtechniquescommonlyusedinselfdefenseandinsportfightingThereisadifferencebetweenaccuracyforthispurposeandexactnessinthescientificsenseTomakeascientificevaluationoftheeffectandconse

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