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首页 古典时代疯狂史英文版.pdf

古典时代疯狂史英文版.pdf

古典时代疯狂史英文版.pdf

上传者: zoutc296 2010-09-19 评分 5 0 286 39 1302 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《古典时代疯狂史英文版pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域,主题内容包含HistoryofMadnessPraiseforthisnewedition:‘Oneofthemajorworksofthetwentiethc符等。

HistoryofMadnessPraiseforthisnewedition:‘OneofthemajorworksofthetwentiethcenturyisfinallyavailableinEnglishThiscomprehensivetranslationfinallyovercomesoneofthegreatdivisionswithintheworldofreasonanoccasiontorevisitMadnessandCivilizationasitwaswritten’PaulRabinow,UniversityofCalifornia,Berkeley‘Withthisbeautifulandmovingbook,MichelFoucaulttransformedourunderstandingoftheprocessesthathadmadepsychiatrypossible–theprocesswhichhadbroughtitsobject,mentalillness,intoexistence,andwhichinscribeditintoourmodernimaginationaspathology,negativity,incompetenceanddeficiencyInstudyingthehistoryofmadnessinthisway,Foucaultalsotaughtuscruciallessonsabouttheassemblingofwhatwehavecometocall‘civilization’Now,atlast,EnglishspeakingreaderscanhaveaccesstothedepthofscholarshipthatunderpinnedFoucault’sanalysis:Ihavenodoubtthatthislongawaitedtranslationwillhaveatransformativeeffectonanewgenerationofreaders’NikolasRose,LondonSchoolofEconomicsReviewsoftheoriginalFrenchedition:‘Athickmanuscriptarrived:aphilosophythesisontherelationsbetweenmadnessandunreasonintheclassicalage,byanauthorIdidnotknowIwasdazzledwhenIreadit’PhilippeAriès‘Thismagnificentbookrequiresamindthatiscapableofbeinginturnahistorian,aphilosopher,apsychologist,andasociologistneversimplyoneoftheseThisisnotamethodthatcouldbeofferedasanexampleitisnotwithinthereachofjustanybodySomethingmorethantalentisnecessary’FernandBraudel,AnnalesMichelFoucaultHistoryofMadnessEditedbyJeanKhalfaTranslatedbyJonathanMurphyandJeanKhalfaFirstpublishedbyRoutledgeParkSquare,MiltonPark,Abingdon,Oxon,OXRNRoutledgeisanimprintoftheTaylorFrancisGroup,aninformabusinessFirstpublishedinFrenchas‘FolieetDéraison:Histoiredelafolieàl’âgeclassique’LibrariePlon,Paris,Thiseditionisatranslationof‘HistoiredelaFolieàl’âgeclassique’EditionsGALLIMARD,Paris,Appendices‘Moncorps,cepapier,cefeu’and‘Lafolie,l’absenced’œuvre’EditionsGALLIMARD,Paris,Appendix‘ReplytoDerrida’fromMichelFoucault,DitsetEcritsVolIIEditionsGALLIMARD,Paris,ThisEnglishTranslationRoutledgeIntroductionandEditorialMatterJeanKhalfaForewordIanHackingOuvragepubliéavecleconcoursduMinistèrefrançaischargédelaculture–CentreNationalduLivreThiseditionispublishedwiththehelpoftheFrenchMinistryofCulture–NationalBookCentreAllrightsreservedNopartofthisbookmaybereprintedorreproducedorutilisedinanyformorbyanyelectronic,mechanical,orothermeans,nowknownorhereafterinvented,includingphotocopyingandrecording,orinanyinformationstorageorretrievalsystem,withoutpermissioninwritingfromthepublishersBritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationDataAcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibraryISBN:–––ISBN:–––(eBook)ISBN:––––ISBN:––––(eBook)ThiseditionpublishedintheTaylorFranciseLibrary,“TopurchaseyourowncopyofthisoranyofTaylorFrancisorRoutledge’scollectionofthousandsofeBookspleasegotowwweBookstoretandfcouk”(PrintEdition)BiographyofMichelFoucaultMichelFoucaultwasborninPoitiersonJune,thesonofadoctorHefinishedhissecondaryeducationinParisattheLycéeHenryIVinandwentontostudyphilosophyattheprestigiousÉcoleNormaleSupérieure,attendinginparticularthelecturesofMauriceMerleauPontyandworkingwithJeanHyppolite,onHegel,andwithLouisAlthusserDespitesufferingfromsporadicboutsofdepressionandasuicideattemptin,FoucaultsecureddegreesinphilosophyinandinpsychologyinHepassedhisagrégationinphilosophyinHejoinedtheFrenchCommunistPartyinandquitinLecturingattheÉcoleNormaleSupérieureandworkingasapsychologistattheHôpitalSainteAnne,intheearlys,hebecamedissatisfiedwiththeconfinesofFrenchacademiclifeandhelddiplomaticandacademicpostsinSweden(wherehemetandworkedwithGeorgesDumézil),PolandandGermany,whilstworkingonhisthesisFolieetDéraison:Histoiredelafolieàl’âgeclassiqueInitiallyrejectedbyGallimard,itwaspublishedinbythegreathistorianPhilippeArièsatLibrairiePlon,thepublisherofClaudeLéviStraussItwashailedas‘magnificent’byFernandBraudelSeveralothernowfamousworksfollowed,includingTheBirthoftheClinic,TheOrderofThings,andTheArchaeologyofKnowledgeIn,Foucaultwasappointedtoachairatthenew,experimental,UniversityofVincennesand,in,waselectedtoaprestigiouschairattheCollègedeFrancewherehetaughttheHistoryofSystemsofThoughtWhileproducingaverylargeandinfluentialbodyofresearchduringthesands,FoucaultthrewhimselfintopoliticalandsocialactivismHecampaignedinparticularonbehalfofhomosexualsandforprisonreformInhepublishedoneofhismostfamousworks,DisciplineandPunish:BirthofthePrisonFoucaulttravelledtoNorthAmericainthelatesandearlys,teachingannuallyattheUniversityofCaliforniaatBerkeleyFreelyexperimentingwithLSDandtheliberalsexualenvironment,helivedwhathetermed‘limitexperiences’Duringthatperiod,inadditiontomanyarticles(publishedposthumouslyinfourvolumes),hewrotethethreevolumesofhisHistoryofSexualityFatallyillwithAIDS,MichelFoucaultdiedinParisonJuneintheSalpêtrièreHospitalattheageoffiftysevenAfterhisdeath,theFrenchprimeministerissuedatributeandmemorialhomagesfeaturedonthefrontpagesofallthenationalpressInhisobituary,GeorgesDumézilwrote,‘Foucault’sintelligenceliterallyknewnolimits’biographyofmichelfoucaultviCONTENTSForewordbyIanHackingixIntroductionbyJeanKhalfaxiiiPrefacetotheeditionxxviiPrefacetotheeditionxxxviiPARTONEIStultiferaNavisIIThegreatconfinementIIIThecorrectionalworldIVExperiencesofmadnessVTheinsanePARTTWOIntroductionIThemadmaninthegardenofspeciesIIThetranscendenceofdeliriumIIIFiguresofmadnessIVDoctorsandpatientsPARTTHREEIntroductionIThegreatfearIIThenewdivisionIIITheproperuseoflibertyIVBirthoftheasylumVTheanthropologicalcircleAPPENDICESIMadness,theabsenceofanœuvreAppendixIofeditionIIMybody,thispaper,thisfireAppendixIIofeditionIIIReplytoDerrida(‘MichelFoucaultDerridaenokaino’Paideia(Tokyo)February)EndnotesANNEXESIDocumentsIIFoucault’soriginalbibliographyIIIBibliographyofEnglishworksquotedinthistranslationIVCriticalbibliographyonFoucault’sHistoryofMadnessIndexcontentsviiiFOREWORDIanHackingThankgoodnessthisenormousbookisfinallyavailableinEnglishAmasterpieceneedsnoforeword,soIshallhardlygobeyondthetitleTheoriginaloneisabitlikeAlice’sCheshireCat,ofwhichnothingisleftbutthegrinItstartsoutasMadnessandUnreason:HistoryofMadnessintheClassicalAge,andfadesawaysothatweareleftwithourpresentHistoryofMadnessIshallgothroughthestepsItisagradualdisappearingact,andIshallpointyouinthedirectionofthedisappeared‘unreason’,nottoexplainit,buttoencourageyoutonoticeitInthetaleofthetitlesandofunreason,thereareallthesignsofFoucaultchanginghismindaboutmadnessTheexacttitleinwasFolieetDéraisonHistoiredelafolieàl’âgeclassiqueVeryoftenonlythefirstwordofaFrenchtitleiscapitalisedInthesecondnoun,déraison,wasalsogivenacapitalletterDanielDefert,Foucault’slongtimeintellectualcolleague,companion,andposthumouseditor,laidemphasisontheexacttitleoftheoriginalHedoessoinhisincrediblyvaluabledatelist,farricherthananyordinarychronology,atthebeginningofDitsetécrits,thecollectionofFoucault’spublishedessays,interviews,speechesandprefaces‘Unreason’wasrightuptherealongside‘Madness’Thebigbookofwasseverelyabridged,andappearedasapaperbackinHalfofthefirstprefacewassuppressedOnthecoverweseeonlyHistoiredelafolieOnthetitlepagethefulltitleappearsinblockletters,butwithFolieetDéraisoninsmallerprintthanthesubtitleFading,likethecatThisversionwastranslatedintomanylanguages,whileonlyanItalianpublisherdidtheunabridgedbookFortheEnglishversion,FoucaultrestoredalittlematerialthathehadcutfromtheFrenchabridgementForamoment,aflickermoreofthecat’sfacecamebackForherearethemostvividassertionsaboutUnreasontobefoundintheentireworkTheywillhardlymakesenseoutofcontext,soIreferyoutothepagesinquestionwhichweresuppressedandthenrestored(pp–)Youwillfindsentenceslikethis:‘HowcanweavoidsummingupthisexperiencebythesinglewordUnreasonBythatwemeanallthatforwhichreasonisatoncenearestandmostdistant,fullestandmostempty’InFoucaultpublishedasecondeditionoftheentirebook,plusthreeappendices,butwithasubstituteprefaceTheFrenchtitlehadbecomewhatwasformerlythesubtitle,HistoryofMadnessintheClassicalAgeWhatisthedéraisonthatdroppedfromthetitlebutwasstillalloverthetextUnreasonisnotidenticaltomadnessbutsomethingthatcontrastswithitForexample,intheanxietyofthesecondhalfoftheeighteenthcentury,thefearofmadnessgrewatthesamerateasthedreadofunreason,andforthatreasonthetwinobsessionsconstantlylenteachothermutualsupport(p)Laterwereadthatsincetheendoftheeighteenthcentury‘thelifeofunreason’nolongermanifestsitselfexceptintheflashesoflightningfoundinworkslikethoseof‘Hölderlin,Nerval,NietzscheandArtaud’whichresisted‘throughtheirownstrengththatgiganticmoralimprisonment’StandardFrenchhistoryandiconographyofpsychiatryrepresentsPinelcastingoffthechainsofmadmensoonaftertheBastillehadfallen,sothatisastoryofliberatingthemadHerewearetoldthatthenew‘moral’treatmentofinsanitywasalsotheimprisonmentofunreasonthathadflashedsoopenlyonthecanvassesofHieronymusBoschCasualreferencebooksdiagnoseHölderlinasaschizophrenicpoet,Nietzscheasaphilosophersufferingfromdementiacausedbyterminalsyphilis,andArtaudasabipolar(manicdepressive)playwrightNervalkilledhimself:wesaysuicideiscausedbyseveredepressiveillnessItisacentralthesisofthisbookthat,farfromthesebeinginevitablewaysofconceivingoffourverystrangemen,itrequiresaspecificorganizationofforewordxthoughttocategorisethem–andsomanyotherpeople–intermsofmentaldisorderFoucaultdoesnotpandertothethoughtthatgeniusandmentaldisturbanceareofapieceTheartofthesemen,asheshoutsattheendofthebook,istheexactoppositeofinsanity:‘Wherethereisanœuvre,thereisnomadness’(p)AlongsidemadnessthereisalsounreasonIthadmuchfullerplayintheRenaissance,anunreasonthatFoucaultevokesbytheshipoffoolsandthepaintingsofBosch,especiallyTheTemptationofSaintAnthony(Foucaultismarvellouswithpaintings:lookhowmuchhedrawsfromGoyaattheendofthebook,andoneknowsthetourdeforceonVelasquezthatopenTheOrderofThings)Heevensaysthatintheearlydaysofconfiningthemad,theexperienceofunreasonsmotheredsomethingelse,theconsciousnessofmadness(p)Butthentwodistinctobsessionsemerged,hetellsus,madnessandunreasonThefearofoneandthedreadoftheotherweretamedintheasylumThelifeofunreasoncouldbreakthroughtheresultingsilenceonlyinthevoicesofthosewhowereclassifiedamongthemadbutwho,throughtheirart,roseabovemadnesstoactasstandardstowhichthesaneandclassifyingworldisunabletoanswerAromanticfantasylurkshere,thepurityofthepossessed,thosewhonotonlyspeakthetruthinparadox,likethefoolsinShakespeare,butwhoarealsothemselvesthetruthThefantasyleapsoutatyoufromthepreface,inwordssuppressedin:‘amadnesswhosewildstatecanneverbereconstitutedbutintheabsenceofthatinaccessibleprimitivepurity’(pxxxiii)Thereitis:theinaccessibleprimitivepurityThatiswhatmadethebooksoattractivetotheBritishantipsychiatricmovementSomuchisclearfromtheendofDavidCooper’sprefacetotheEnglish(asopposedtotheAmericanedition)versionof–anditwasCooperwhohadcoinedtheneologism‘antipsychiatry’inBy,halftheprefacewascut,andbyithadallgoneInanew,splendidlybrief,andseeminglytransparentpreface,MichelFoucaultspeaks,aswasthenhiswont,ofabookbeinganevent,whichifitlives,livesthroughrepeateddoublingsandsimulacraIthasitsownlife,freeoftheauthorDoublings:IsuggestthatyouholdinyourhandstwodistinctbooksThemaintextofeachisthesameItisalltooeasytocomparethesetwobookstothetwoDonQuixoteinventedbyBorges,theonewrittenbyforewordxiCervantes,theother,identicalinwords,writtenmuchlaterbyanimaginedPierreMenardDespitethewordsbeingthesame,somuchhashappenedthatthemeaningisdifferentOneofthesebooksisgovernedbyanideaofdéraison,inwhichtherelurksadreamofmadnessinthewild,assomethingprediscursive,inaccessible,pureTheotherbookiswhatthefirstbecame,strippedofromanticillusionTheprefacepromisedanarchaeologyofasilence–andnotanarchaeologyofpsychiatry,that‘monologueofreasonaboutmadness’WhatFoucaultnamed‘archaeology’shows,inpart,howadiscoursebecomespossibleHedidnotshowhowthepsychiatricmonologuebecamepossible:hemerelyrecordedthatitcameintobeingThesilencewassilenceaboutunreasonThatcausesusdifficultyUnreasonisstillaword,butitisnolongerpartofdailylanguageMuchthesamegoesforFrenchdéraison(p)FromtheveryfirstparagraphofthisforewordyouwillhavebeenwonderingwhatitmeansRightlysoMadnessisthevisiblegrin,unreasonthecatthathasfadedaway‘Archaeologyofasilence’–thatisfromthepartoftheprefacethatremainedin,butthendisappearedOnceFoucault’sideaofarchaeologyhadmatured,itappearsthatanarchaeologycanonlybeofwhatissaidIfso,thesecondbook(ofthetwoidenticaltexts)isnolongeranarchaeologyofsilenceItistheworkofanauthorwhoisnolongerobsessedbythefearofmadnessanddreadofunreasonHehasmadepeacewithboth,andhasmovedontothegreatestofhisarchaeologies,TheOrderofThings()forewordxiiINTRODUCTIONJeanKhalfaFoucault’sHistoryofMadnesshasyettobereadMadnessandCivilisation,theEnglishtranslationofHistoiredelaFolie,wasbasedonanabridgedFrencheditionfromwhichroughlypageshadbeenremoved,togetherwithmostofthescholarlyapparatus(aboutfootnotesandthebibliography)MostinterpretationsandcriticismsmadeofthebookintheEnglishspeakingworldwerethereforebasedonapartialperspectiveAdditionally,becauseofthehistoricalcircumstancesofitsappearance,thebookwaslargelyconfinedtodebatessurroundingtheantipsychiatricmovement:theIntroductiontotheEnglisheditionwaswrittenbyDavidCooper,andthereader’snoteRDLainghadwrittenforRoutledge(reproducedhere)wasusedforthebackcoverItistruethatFoucaultdidnotmarkhisdistancefromsuchreadings,perhapsbecausehisdesirewas,hesaid,thatthisobjectevent,almostimperceptibleamongsomanyothers,shouldrecopy,fragment,repeat,simulateandreplicateitself,andfinallydisappearwithoutthepersonwhohappenedtoproduceiteverbeingabletoclaimtherighttobeitsmaster,andimposewhathewishedtosay,orsaywhathewantedittobe(Preface)Rereadingittoday,andinthewayitrequeststhathistoricaleventsshouldbeunderstood,thatisbyreferringthemtotheconditionsoftheirgenesisandnottotheiraftermath,itappearsmuchmorecomplexthanthesereadingsimpliedFirst,itiswithoutdoubtananalysisofthehistoryofmadnessconsideredasacultural,legal,political,philosophicalandthenmedicalconstruct,fromtheRenaissancetothebeginningofthenineteenthcenturyButitisalsoareflectiononthenotionofhistoryandonthemethodologyofthehistorian,areflectioninfluencedbyNietzsche’scriticismofhistoricalteleologiesThebook,fromthispointofview,showshowanonteleologicalapproachtohistoricalphenomenacandenaturalisewhatistousmostfamiliarbyunearthingitslongforgottenandoftenunpalatableoriginsthroughthestudyofforgottenarchives,tracesofarealityoftenveryremovedfromwhatwastobecomethedominantnarrativeFromaphilosophicalpointofview,thisbookisthemomentwhenFoucault’sthoughtstartstolookbeyondphenomenologyandtowardsstructuralism,movingfromatheoryofformsofconsciousnesstoadescriptionofhistoricalsystemsofthoughtsMostofitsvocabularyisphenomenologicalanditsavowedobjectisaparticularexperience,thatoftheotherasmad:‘Totrytorecapture,inhistory,thisdegreezeroofthehistoryofmadness,whenitwasundifferentiatedexperience,thestillundividedexperienceofthedivisionitself’(Preface)YettheideaisthatspecificstructuresofpowerdeterminethisexperiencedifferentlyatdifferentmomentsFinallythisbookalsomarkstherejectionofaparticularconceptionofphilosophyasirreducibletothematerialcircumstancesofitsproductionThisiswhatisatstakeintheviolentdebatewithDerridaonDescartes’exclusionoftheinsane(Foucault’stextsonthistopicarereproducedintheappendicestothepresentedition)MADNESSAsahistory,thethesisofthisbookisthatwhethermadnessisdescribedasareligiousorphilosophicalphenomenon(anexperienceofinspiration,alossofmind,etc),orasanobjectivemedicalessence(asinalltheclassificationsoftypesofmadnessthathavebeendevelopedbypsychiatry),theseconceptionsarenotdiscoveriesbuthistoricalconstructionsofmeaningWhencomparingtheconceptionsofmadnessprevailingindifferentcivilisations,Foucaultrealisedthattherecouldbeahistoryofmadnessitself,inotherwordsthatitwasa‘phenomenonofcivilisation,asvariable,asintroductionxivfloatingasanyotherphenomenonofculture’and,asaconsequence,that‘curingthemadisnottheonlypossiblereactiontothephenomenonofmadness’Thereisamomentinhistorywhenmadnessstartedtobeperceivedasadisease,asanobjectofscientificinquiryandifthistransformationisinterestingfromthepointofviewofthehistoryofpsychiatryandofmedicineingeneral,itisperhapsmoreimportantinwhatittellsusaboutwhatmusthavechangedinasocietyasawholeforsuchatransformationtooccurInotherwords,Foucaultdoesnotlookatmadnessfromthepointofviewoftheclassicalhistorianofascientificdiscipline,herepsychiatry,whowouldtracethedevelopmentofasciencefromincho

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